Skip header and navigation

2 records – page 1 of 1.

Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9391
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2004;32(4):250-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Christina Schnohr
Lise Højbjerre
Mette Riegels
Luise Ledet
Tine Larsen
Kirsten Schultz-Larsen
Liselotte Petersen
Eva Prescott
Morten Grønbaek
Author Affiliation
Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2004;32(4):250-6
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - mortality
Denmark - epidemiology
Educational Status
Exercise
Female
Humans
Male
Obesity - mortality
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Smoking - mortality
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study aims at examining whether the relation between established risk factors and mortality differs with socioeconomic status as measured by level of education. METHODS: A population-based sample of 14,399 women and 16,236 men aged 20-93 years from Copenhagen was stratified into three educational levels measured as basic schooling, and the effect of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index, respectively, on mortality was assessed. RESULTS: Those with the lowest level of education were most frequently heavy smokers, heavy drinkers, physically inactive, and obese. During a mean follow up of 16 years 10,952 subjects died. Compared with subjects with the lowest educational level, women with the highest educational level had a relative risk of 0.80 (95% CI; 0.70-0.91), and men of 0.71 (0.65-0.78). Heavy smoking compared with never smoking implied a more than twofold increased risk at all three educational levels among both men and women. The relation between alcohol intake and mortality was J-shaped on all three educational levels. There were decreasing risk functions describing the relations between physical activity and mortality on all three strata. Further, subjects who were either very lean or obese had increased risks of death compared with those of normal weight at all educational levels in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in distribution of the main known risk factors may be part of the explanation for the differences in mortality risk. However, these risk factors seem to influence mortality equally at different educational levels. Therefore, social inequalities in mortality do not seem to be explained only by differences in effect of lifestyle risk factors, but are also related to the social rank or unexamined factors within.
PubMed ID
15370764 View in PubMed
Less detail

Nationwide measles epidemic in Ukraine: the effect of low vaccine effectiveness.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91954
Source
Vaccine. 2008 Dec 9;26(52):6980-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-9-2008
Author
Velicko Inga
Müller Luise Ledet
Pebody Richard
Gergonne Bernadette
Aidyralieva Chinara
Kostiuchenko Nina
Spika John S
Author Affiliation
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Solna, Sweden. inga.velicko@smi.se
Source
Vaccine. 2008 Dec 9;26(52):6980-5
Date
Dec-9-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Disease Outbreaks
Humans
Immunization Programs
Measles - epidemiology - immunology
Measles Vaccine - immunology
Population Surveillance
Sample Size
Treatment Failure
Ukraine - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The WHO European Region has a measles elimination target for 2010. Between September 2005 and mid-June 2006, more than 50,000 measles cases were reported in Ukraine; many reportedly had received two doses of measles vaccine and over 60% were among persons 15-29 years old. To investigate vaccine effectiveness (VE), a case-control study was undertaken in Dnepropetrovsk region. VE for two doses of measles vaccine was 93.1%, providing insufficient population immunity for measles elimination. An additional dose of measles vaccine for these age-cohorts is required if Ukraine is to achieve measles elimination. Other republics of the former Soviet Union also need to consider a supplemental dose of measles vaccine for older age groups identified epidemiologically to be at increased risk for measles even though individuals may have already received two doses.
PubMed ID
18805455 View in PubMed
Less detail