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2009 Pandemic influenza A H1N1 in Alaska: temporal and geographic characteristics of spread and increased risk of hospitalization among Alaska Native and Asian/Pacific Islander people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136553
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;52 Suppl 1:S189-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2011
Author
Jay D Wenger
Louisa J Castrodale
Dana L Bruden
James W Keck
Tammy Zulz
Michael G Bruce
Donna A Fearey
Joe McLaughlin
Debby Hurlburt
Kim Boyd Hummel
Sassa Kitka
Steve Bentley
Timothy K Thomas
Rosalyn Singleton
John T Redd
Larry Layne
James E Cheek
Thomas W Hennessy
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA. jdw2@cdc.gov
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;52 Suppl 1:S189-97
Date
Jan-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska - epidemiology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Child
Child, Preschool
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Geography
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - virology
Male
Middle Aged
Pandemics
Population Groups
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Alaska Native people have suffered disproportionately from previous influenza pandemics. We evaluated 3 separate syndromic data sources to determine temporal and geographic patterns of spread of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) in Alaska, and reviewed records from persons hospitalized with pH1N1 disease in 3 areas in Alaska to characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of disease in Alaskans. A wave of pH1N1 disease swept through Alaska beginning in most areas in August or early September. In rural regions, where Alaska Native people comprise a substantial proportion of the population, disease occurred earlier than in other regions. Alaska Native people and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PI) were 2-4 times more likely to be hospitalized than whites. Alaska Native people and other minorities remain at high risk for early and substantial morbidity from pandemic influenza episodes. These findings should be integrated into plans for distribution and use of vaccine and antiviral agents.
PubMed ID
21342894 View in PubMed
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Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Fire Assay Workers and Their Children in Alaska, 2010-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268187
Source
Public Health Rep. 2015 Sep-Oct;130(5):440-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kimberly A Porter
Cassandra Kirk
Donna Fearey
Louisa J Castrodale
David Verbrugge
Joseph McLaughlin
Source
Public Health Rep. 2015 Sep-Oct;130(5):440-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alaska
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidentiality - legislation & jurisprudence
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Epidemiological Monitoring
Family Health
Guideline Adherence
Humans
Information Dissemination - legislation & jurisprudence
Lead - blood
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Metallurgy - methods - standards
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - prevention & control - standards
Protective Devices - standards - utilization
United States
United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration - standards
Abstract
In October 2010, an employee at Facility A in Alaska that performs fire assay analysis, an industrial technique that uses lead-containing flux to obtain metals from pulverized rocks, was reported to the Alaska Section of Epidemiology (SOE) with an elevated blood lead level (BLL) =10 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL). The SOE initiated an investigation; investigators interviewed employees, offered blood lead screening to employees and their families, and observed a visit to the industrial facility by the Alaska Occupational Safety and Health Section (AKOSH). Among the 15 employees with known work responsibilities, 12 had an elevated BLL at least once from October 2010 through February 2011. Of these 12 employees, 10 reported working in the fire assay room. Four children of employees had BLLs =5 µg/dL. Employees working in Facility A's fire assay room were likely exposed to lead at work and could have brought lead home. AKOSH inspectors reported that they could not share their consultative report with SOE investigators because of the confidentiality requirements of a federal regulation, which hampered Alaska SOE investigators from fully characterizing the lead exposure standards.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26327721 View in PubMed
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Endemic foodborne botulism among Alaska Native persons--Alaska, 1947-2007.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137347
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 1;52(5):585-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2011
Author
Ryan P Fagan
Joseph B McLaughlin
Louisa J Castrodale
Bradford D Gessner
Sue A Jenkerson
Elizabeth A Funk
Thomas W Hennessy
John P Middaugh
Jay C Butler
Author Affiliation
Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. fev3@cdc.gov
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 1;52(5):585-92
Date
Mar-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska
Botulism - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Endemic Diseases
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Population Groups
Young Adult
Abstract
Foodborne botulism resulting from consumption of uncooked aquatic game foods has been an endemic hazard among Alaska Native populations for centuries. Our review was conducted to help target botulism prevention and response activities.
Records of Alaska botulism investigations for the period 1947-2007 were reviewed. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definitions for foodborne botulism and linear regression to evaluate incidence trends and ?(2) or Fisher's Exact tests to evaluate categorical data.
A total of 317 patients (61% of whom were female) and 159 outbreaks were reported. Overall mean annual incidence was 6.9 cases per 100,000 Alaska Native persons; mean incidence was lower in 2000 (5.7 cases per 100,000 Alaska Native persons) than in any period since 1965-1969 (0.8 cases per 100,000 Alaska Native persons). Age-specific incidence was highest (26.6 cases per 100,000 Alaska Native persons) among persons aged =60 years. The overall case-fatality rate was 8.2%, and the case-fatality rate was =4.0% since 1980. Misdiagnosis was associated with a higher case-fatality rate and delayed antitoxin administration.
Foodborne botulism remains a public health problem in Alaska. Incidence might be decreasing, but it remains >800 times the overall US rate (0.0068 cases per 100,000 persons). Prevention messages should highlight the additional risk to female individuals and older persons. Early diagnosis is critical for timely access to antitoxin and supportive care.
Notes
Comment In: Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 1;52(5):593-421292664
PubMed ID
21292663 View in PubMed
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Increase in Adverse Reactions Associated with Use of Synthetic Cannabinoids - Anchorage, Alaska, 2015-2016.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279086
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Oct 14;65(40):1108-1111
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-14-2016
Author
Yuri P Springer
Roy Gerona
Erich Scheunemann
Sarah L Shafer
Thomas Lin
Samuel D Banister
Michael P Cooper
Louisa J Castrodale
Michael Levy
Jay C Butler
Joseph B McLaughlin
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Oct 14;65(40):1108-1111
Date
Oct-14-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology
Cannabinoids - adverse effects
Child
Designer Drugs - adverse effects
Disease Outbreaks
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions - epidemiology - therapy
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Young Adult
Abstract
In July 2015, personnel in the Alaska Division of Public Health's Section of Epidemiology became aware of an increase in the number of patients being treated in Anchorage hospital emergency departments for adverse reactions associated with use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). SCs are a chemically diverse class of designer drugs that bind to the same cannabinoid receptors as tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive component of cannabis. A public health investigation was initiated to describe clinical outcomes, characterize the outbreak, and identify SC chemicals circulating in Anchorage. During July 15, 2015-March 15, 2016, a total of 1,351 ambulance transports to Anchorage emergency departments for adverse SC reactions were identified. A review of charts obtained from two Anchorage hospitals determined that among 167 emergency department visits for adverse SC reactions during July 15-September 30, 2015, 11 (6.6%) involved a patient who required endotracheal intubation, 17 (10.2%) involved a patient who was admitted to the intensive care unit, and 66 (39.5%) involved a patient classified as being homeless. Testing of 25 product and paraphernalia samples collected from patients at one hospital identified 11 different SC chemicals. Educational outreach campaigns focused on the considerable health risks of using SCs need to complement judicial and law enforcement actions to reduce SC use.
PubMed ID
27736839 View in PubMed
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Novel Orthopoxvirus Infection in an Alaska Resident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289944
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Jun 15; 64(12):1737-1741
Publication Type
Case Reports
Journal Article
Date
Jun-15-2017
Author
Yuri P Springer
Christopher H Hsu
Zachary R Werle
Link E Olson
Michael P Cooper
Louisa J Castrodale
Nisha Fowler
Andrea M McCollum
Cynthia S Goldsmith
Ginny L Emerson
Kimberly Wilkins
Jeffrey B Doty
Jillybeth Burgado
JinXin Gao
Nishi Patel
Matthew R Mauldin
Mary G Reynolds
Panayampalli S Satheshkumar
Whitni Davidson
Yu Li
Joseph B McLaughlin
Author Affiliation
Alaska Division of Public Health, Section of Epidemiology, Anchorage.
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Jun 15; 64(12):1737-1741
Date
Jun-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Case Reports
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Antibodies, Viral - blood
DNA, Viral - blood
Female
Fomites - virology
Humans
Mammals - virology
Microscopy, Electron
Middle Aged
Orthopoxvirus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification - ultrastructure
Phylogeny
Poxviridae Infections - diagnosis - virology
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Skin - pathology - virology
Abstract
Human infection by orthopoxviruses is being reported with increasing frequency, attributed in part to the cessation of smallpox vaccination and concomitant waning of population-level immunity. In July 2015, a female resident of interior Alaska presented to an urgent care clinic with a dermal lesion consistent with poxvirus infection. Laboratory testing of a virus isolated from the lesion confirmed infection by an Orthopoxvirus.
The virus isolate was characterized by using electron microscopy and nucleic acid sequencing. An epidemiologic investigation that included patient interviews, contact tracing, and serum testing, as well as environmental and small-mammal sampling, was conducted to identify the infection source and possible additional cases.
Neither signs of active infection nor evidence of recent prior infection were observed in any of the 4 patient contacts identified. The patient's infection source was not definitively identified. Potential routes of exposure included imported fomites from Azerbaijan via the patient's cohabiting partner or wild small mammals in or around the patient's residence. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the virus represents a distinct and previously undescribed genetic lineage of Orthopoxvirus, which is most closely related to the Old World orthopoxviruses.
Investigation findings point to infection of the patient after exposure in or near Fairbanks. This conclusion raises questions about the geographic origins (Old World vs North American) of the genus Orthopoxvirus. Clinicians should remain vigilant for signs of poxvirus infection and alert public health officials when cases are suspected.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28329402 View in PubMed
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Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium associated with ground beef served at a school potluck.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29160
Source
J Food Prot. 2006 Mar;69(3):666-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Joseph B McLaughlin
Louisa J Castrodale
Michael J Gardner
Rafiq Ahmed
Bradford D Gessner
Author Affiliation
Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, 3601 C Street, Suite 540, Anchorage, Alaska 99503, USA. joe_mclaughlin@health.state.ak.us
Source
J Food Prot. 2006 Mar;69(3):666-70
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Cattle
Child
Child, Preschool
Consumer Product Safety
Disease Outbreaks
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Food Handling - methods
Humans
Male
Meat Products - microbiology
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology
Salmonella typhimurium - drug effects - isolation & purification
Schools
Abstract
An outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among at least 47 persons attending a school potluck. Illness was associated with consumption of ground beef (estimated odds ratio, 16.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 338.3). Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from infected individuals and the implicated ground beef revealed identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and was multidrug resistant. The implicated ground beef was improperly handled during the cooking process and stored above the U.S. Food and Drug Administration cooling temperature standard for >15 h before being served. This outbreak demonstrates the limitations of food safety regulations in settings where foods are prepared in the home environment for communal potlucks, bake sales, or other such gatherings held at schools, churches, or other institutions. Public health authorities should encourage school and other institutional administrators to develop policies that require dissemination of safe food preparation guidelines to prospective food handlers when such events are scheduled.
PubMed ID
16541701 View in PubMed
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Tradition and transition: parasitic zoonoses of people and animals in Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115065
Source
Adv Parasitol. 2013;82:33-204
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Emily J Jenkins
Louisa J Castrodale
Simone J C de Rosemond
Brent R Dixon
Stacey A Elmore
Karen M Gesy
Eric P Hoberg
Lydden Polley
Janna M Schurer
Manon Simard
R C Andrew Thompson
Author Affiliation
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada. emily.jenkins@usask.ca
Source
Adv Parasitol. 2013;82:33-204
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Canada
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Canada - epidemiology
Communicable Diseases, Emerging - epidemiology - parasitology
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - parasitology
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infection Control - methods
Parasites - classification - isolation & purification
Parasitic Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Prevalence
Zoonoses - epidemiology - parasitology
Abstract
Zoonotic parasites are important causes of endemic and emerging human disease in northern North America and Greenland (the North), where prevalence of some parasites is higher than in the general North American population. The North today is in transition, facing increased resource extraction, globalisation of trade and travel, and rapid and accelerating environmental change. This comprehensive review addresses the diversity, distribution, ecology, epidemiology, and significance of nine zoonotic parasites in animal and human populations in the North. Based on a qualitative risk assessment with criteria heavily weighted for human health, these zoonotic parasites are ranked, in the order of decreasing importance, as follows: Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella and Giardia, Echinococcus granulosus/canadensis and Cryptosporidium, Toxocara, anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes. Recent and future trends in the importance of these parasites for human health in the North are explored. For example, the incidence of human exposure to endemic helminth zoonoses (e.g. Diphyllobothrium, Trichinella, and Echinococcus) appears to be declining, while water-borne protozoans such as Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma may be emerging causes of human disease in a warming North. Parasites that undergo temperature-dependent development in the environment (such as Toxoplasma, ascarid and anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes) will likely undergo accelerated development in endemic areas and temperate-adapted strains/species will move north, resulting in faunal shifts. Food-borne pathogens (e.g. Trichinella, Toxoplasma, anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes) may be increasingly important as animal products are exported from the North and tourists, workers, and domestic animals enter the North. Finally, key needs are identified to better assess and mitigate risks associated with zoonotic parasites, including enhanced surveillance in animals and people, detection methods, and delivery and evaluation of veterinary and public health services.
PubMed ID
23548085 View in PubMed
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Two atypical cases of cystic echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus) in Alaska, 1999.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189258
Source
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002 Mar;66(3):325-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2002
Author
Louisa J Castrodale
Michael Beller
Joseph F Wilson
Peter M Schantz
Donald P McManus
Li-Hua Zhang
Franc G Fallico
Frank D Sacco
Author Affiliation
Division of Applied Public Health Training, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. louisa_castrodale@health.state.ak.us
Source
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002 Mar;66(3):325-7
Date
Mar-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alaska
Animals
Echinococcosis - diagnosis - parasitology - physiopathology
Echinococcosis, Hepatic - diagnosis - parasitology - physiopathology
Echinococcus - pathogenicity
Fatal Outcome
Female
Humans
Liver - parasitology
Middle Aged
Abstract
Before 1999, clinical experience demonstrated that the sylvatic (or Northern) biotype of Echinococcus granulosus seen in Alaska produced fewer complications and serious sequelae than infection with the pastoral (or European) biotype found in other parts of the world. Two cases of E. granulosus with severe sequelae occurred in Alaska in 1999. The adverse outcomes could have been rare complications that are part of the clinical spectrum of disease caused by sylvatic cystic echinococcus, an indication that the sylvatic biotype, especially when affecting the liver, has potential for severe clinical consequences, or perhaps in one case, infection with a more virulent biotype of E. granulosus contracted during visits to Washington State.
PubMed ID
12139230 View in PubMed
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Work-related injuries in the Alaska logging industry, 1991-2014.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294318
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2018 Jan; 61(1):32-41
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2018
Author
Yuri P Springer
Devin L Lucas
Louisa J Castrodale
Joseph B McLaughlin
Author Affiliation
Alaska Division of Public Health, Section of Epidemiology, Anchorage, Alaska.
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2018 Jan; 61(1):32-41
Date
Jan-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational - statistics & numerical data
Adult
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology
Female
Forestry - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Injuries - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Registries
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Although loggers in Alaska are at high risk for occupational injury, no comprehensive review of such injuries has been performed since the mid-1990s. We investigated work-related injuries in the Alaska logging industry during 1991-2014.
Using data from the Alaska Trauma Registry and the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System, we described fatal and nonfatal injuries by factors including worker sex and age, timing and geographic location of injuries, and four injury characteristics. Annual injury rates and associated 5-year simple moving averages were calculated.
We identified an increase in the 5-year simple moving averages of fatal injury rates beginning around 2005. While injury characteristics were largely consistent between the first 14 and most recent 10 years of the investigation, the size of logging companies declined significantly between these periods.
Factors associated with declines in the size of Alaska logging companies might have contributed to the observed increase in fatal injury rates.
PubMed ID
29159876 View in PubMed
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10 records – page 1 of 1.