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Analysis of risk factors for schizophrenia with two different case definitions: a nationwide register-based external validation study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269118
Source
Schizophr Res. 2015 Mar;162(1-3):74-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Holger J Sørensen
Janne T Larsen
Ole Mors
Merete Nordentoft
Preben B Mortensen
Liselotte Petersen
Source
Schizophr Res. 2015 Mar;162(1-3):74-8
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Inpatients
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Severity of Illness Index
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Different case definitions of schizophrenia have been used in register based research. However, no previous study has externally validated two different case definitions of schizophrenia against a wide range of risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated hazard ratios (HRs) for a wide range of risk factors for ICD-10 DCR schizophrenia using a nationwide Danish sample of 2,772,144 residents born in 1955-1997. We compared one contact only (OCO) (the case definition of schizophrenia used in Danish register based studies) with two or more contacts (TMC) (a case definition of at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia). During the follow-up, the OCO definition included 15,074 and the TMC 7562 cases; i.e. half as many. The TMC case definition appeared to select for a worse illness course. A wide range of risk factors were uniformly associated with both case definitions and only slightly higher risk estimates were found for the TMC definition. Choosing at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia (TMC) instead of the currently used case definition would result in almost similar risk estimates for many well-established risk factors. However, this would also introduce selection and include considerably fewer cases and reduce power of e.g. genetic studies based on register-diagnosed cases only.
PubMed ID
25620118 View in PubMed
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The Association between Infections and General Cognitive Ability in Young Men - A Nationwide Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270007
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0124005
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Michael Eriksen Benros
Holger Jelling Sørensen
Philip Rising Nielsen
Merete Nordentoft
Preben Bo Mortensen
Liselotte Petersen
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0124005
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bacterial Infections - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology - psychology
Brain - physiopathology
Cognition - physiology
Cognition Disorders - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Intelligence Tests
Linear Models
Male
Military Personnel
Mycoses - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Registries
Research Design
Virus Diseases - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Infections and activated immune responses can affect the brain through several pathways that might also affect cognition. However, no large-scale study has previously investigated the effect of infections on the general cognitive ability in the general population.
Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort of all 161,696 male conscripts during the years 2006-2012 who were tested for cognitive ability, which was based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning at a mean age of 19.4 years. Test scores were converted to a mean of 100.00 and with a standard deviation (SD) of 15. Data were analyzed as a cohort study with severe infections requiring hospitalization as exposure using linear regression.
Adjusted effect sizes were calculated with non-exposure to severe infections as reference, ranging from 0.12 SD to 0.63 SD on general cognitive ability. A prior infection was associated with significantly lower cognitive ability by a mean of 1.76 (95%CI: -1.92 to -1.61; corresponding to 0.12 SD). The cognitive ability was affected the most by the temporal proximity of the last infection (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
25970427 View in PubMed
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Autism spectrum disorder in individuals with anorexia nervosa and in their first- and second-degree relatives: Danish nationwide register-based cohort-study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269877
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2015 May;206(5):401-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Susanne V Koch
Janne T Larsen
Svend E Mouridsen
Mette Bentz
Liselotte Petersen
Cynthia Bulik
Preben B Mortensen
Kerstin J Plessen
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2015 May;206(5):401-7
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anorexia Nervosa - epidemiology
Autism Spectrum Disorder - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology
Family - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Siblings - psychology
Abstract
Clinical and population-based studies report increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in individuals with anorexia nervosa and in their relatives. No nationwide study has yet been published on co-occurrence of these disorders.
To investigate comorbidity of ASD in individuals with anorexia nervosa, and aggregation of ASD and anorexia nervosa in their relatives.
In Danish registers we identified all individuals born in 1981-2008, their parents, and full and half siblings, and linked them to data on hospital admissions for psychiatric disorders.
Risk of comorbidity of ASD in probands with anorexia nervosa and aggregation of ASD in families of anorexia nervosa probands were increased. However, the risk of comorbid and familial ASD did not differ significantly from comorbid and familial major depression or any psychiatric disorder in anorexia nervosa probands.
We confirm aggregation of ASD in probands with anorexia nervosa and in their relatives; however, the relationship between anorexia nervosa and ASD appears to be non-specific.
PubMed ID
25657359 View in PubMed
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Case-control study of genetic and environmental influences on premature death of adult adoptees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18902
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 2002 Aug;23(2):123-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
Liselotte Petersen
Gert G Nielsen
Per Kragh Andersen
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Author Affiliation
Danish Epidemiology Science Centre at Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 2002 Aug;23(2):123-32
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adoption
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Case-Control Studies
Cause of Death
Denmark - epidemiology
Environment
Female
Humans
Infection - mortality
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Neoplasms - mortality
Parents
Proportional Hazards Models
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
Genetic and environmental influence on risk of premature death in adulthood was investigated by estimating the associations in total and cause-specific mortality of adult Danish adoptees and their biological and adoptive parents. Among all 14,427 nonfamilial adoptions formally granted in Denmark during the period 1923 through 1947, we identified 976 case families in which the adoptee died before a fixed date. As control families, we selected 976 families where the adoptees were alive on that date, and matched to the case adoptees with regard to gender and year and month of birth. The data were viewed as a cohort of case parents and a cohort of control parents, and lifetime distributions in the two cohorts were compared using a Cox regression, stratified with regard to the matching variables: gender and year of birth. In the main analyses, the sample was restricted with regard to birth year of the adoptees, and age of transfer to the adoptive parents, and age at death was restricted to the same range for parents and offspring (25-64 years) in order to consider a symmetric lifetime distribution. This reduces the sample to 459 case families and 738 control families. Various truncations, restrictions, and stratifications were used in order to examine the robustness of the results. The results showed a higher mortality among biological parents who had children dying in the age range 25 through 64 years, and this was significant for death from natural causes, infectious causes, vascular causes, and from all causes combined. There were no significant effects for the adoptive parents. This study supports that there are moderate genetic influences on the risk of dying prematurely in adulthood, and only a small, if any, effect of the family environment.
PubMed ID
12214306 View in PubMed
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The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273409
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2015 Sep;41(5):1084-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Pia Jeppesen
Janne Tidselbak Larsen
Lars Clemmensen
Anja Munkholm
Martin Kristian Rimvall
Charlotte Ulrikka Rask
Jim van Os
Liselotte Petersen
Anne Mette Skovgaard
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2015 Sep;41(5):1084-94
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Delusions - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Hallucinations - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Humans
Male
Pedigree
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Registries
Risk
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Abstract
Psychotic experiences (PE) in individuals of the general population are hypothesized to mark the early expression of the pathology underlying psychosis. This notion of PE as an intermediate phenotype is based on the premise that PE share genetic liability with psychosis. We examined whether PE in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.82-5.93). The risk increased for combined hallucinations and delusions (adjusted RR = 5.90, 95% CI: 2.64-13.16). A history of nonpsychotic mental disorders in first-degree relatives did not contribute to the risk of PE in offspring nor did any mental disorder among second-degree relatives. Our findings support the notion of PE as a vulnerability marker of transdiagnostic psychosis. The effect of psychosis in first-degree relatives may operate through shared genetic and environmental factors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25452427 View in PubMed
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Childhood Infections and Subsequent School Achievement Among 598,553 Danish Children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299936
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 08; 37(8):731-737
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2018
Author
Ole Köhler-Forsberg
Holger J Sørensen
Merete Nordentoft
John J McGrath
Michael E Benros
Liselotte Petersen
Author Affiliation
From the Department of Clinical Medicine, Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 08; 37(8):731-737
Date
08-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Academic Success
Adolescent
Birth weight
Child
Cohort Studies
Communicable Diseases - drug therapy - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk factors
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Hospitalizations for infections have been associated with subsequent decreased cognitive ability, but it is uncertain if childhood infections influence subsequent scholastic achievement (SA). We aimed to estimate the association between infections during childhood and SA.
Nationwide prospective cohort study including 598,553 children born in Denmark between 1987 and 1997 and their parents. Exposures were hospitalization for infections and treatment with anti-infective agents. Outcomes were completion of ninth grade and ninth grade test scores. Data were analyzed with logistic and linear regression analysis techniques and adjusted for any mental disorder, birthweight, Apgar score, malformations at birth, chronic somatic diseases, first-born child, parental educational level and parental mental disorders.
Hospitalization with infections was linked to lower completion of ninth grade with an odds ratio of 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.85) compared with children without prior hospitalizations for infections. Dose-response relationships were observed with respect to number of hospital contacts for infections and a shorter time since last hospitalization (all P
Notes
CommentIn: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Aug;37(8):729-730 PMID 29505480
PubMed ID
29278614 View in PubMed
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Comparison of case-cohort estimators based on data on premature death of adult adoptees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182410
Source
Stat Med. 2003 Dec 30;22(24):3795-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-30-2003
Author
Liselotte Petersen
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Per Kragh Andersen
Author Affiliation
Danish Epidemiology Science Centre at the Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK-1399 Copenhagen K, Denmark. lp@ipm.hosp.dk
Source
Stat Med. 2003 Dec 30;22(24):3795-803
Date
Dec-30-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adoption
Adult
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Environment
Genetics
Humans
Mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Survival Analysis
Abstract
A case-cohort sample of adoptees was collected to investigate genetic and environmental influences on premature death, which motivated us to supplement existing simulation results to explore the performance of various estimators proposed for case-cohort samples of survival data. We studied six regression coefficients estimators, which differ with regard to the weighting scheme used in a pseudo-likelihood function, and two different estimators of their variances. Compared to earlier simulation studies, we changed the following conditions: type of explanatory variable, the distribution of lifetimes, and the percentage of deaths in the full cohort. The latter condition affected the performance of the estimated variances of the regression coefficients, where we found a systematic bias of the estimator, proposed by Self and Prentice, dependent on the percentages of deaths. This dependence of percentages of death was different for different sizes of case-cohort studies. A robust variance estimator showed a better overall performance. The estimators of regression coefficients compared did not differ much, the estimators proposed by Kalbfleisch and Lawless and by Prentice performing very well. Results of the case-cohort data of adoptees were not in conflict with earlier findings of a moderate genetic influence on premature death in adulthood.
PubMed ID
14673939 View in PubMed
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A comprehensive assessment of parental age and psychiatric disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105189
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Mar;71(3):301-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
John J McGrath
Liselotte Petersen
Esben Agerbo
Ole Mors
Preben Bo Mortensen
Carsten Bøcker Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia2Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Richlands, Australia.
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Mar;71(3):301-9
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Maternal Age
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Middle Aged
Paternal Age
Registries
Risk
Young Adult
Abstract
There has been recent interest in the findings that the offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of both de novo mutations and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the offspring of younger parents are also at risk for some adverse mental health outcomes.
To determine the association between maternal and paternal age and a comprehensive range of mental health disorders.
A comprehensive, population-based record linkage study using the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2011. A total of 2 894 688 persons born in Denmark from January 1, 1955, through December 31, 2006, were followed up during the study period.
Maternal and paternal age at the time of offspring's birth.
We examined a broad range of International Classification of Diseases-defined mental disorders, including substance use; schizophrenia and related disorders; mood disorders; neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders; eating disorders; specific personality disorders; and a range of developmental and childhood disorders. The incidence rate ratios for each mental disorder outcome were estimated by log linear Poisson regression with adjustments for the calendar period, age, sex, and age of the other parent.
The cohort was observed for 42.7 million person-years, during which 218 441 members of the cohort had their first psychiatric contact for any psychiatric disorder. Based on the overall risk of psychiatric disorders, the offspring of younger and older parents were at increased risk compared with those of parents aged 25 to 29 years. When the offspring were examined for particular disorders, the nature of the relationship changed. For example, the offspring of older fathers were at an increased risk of schizophrenia and related disorders, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorders. In contrast, the offspring of young mothers (and to a lesser extent young fathers) were at an increased risk for substance use disorders, hyperkinetic disorders, and mental retardation.
The offspring of younger mothers and older fathers are at risk for different mental health disorders. These differences can provide clues to the complex risk architecture underpinning the association between parental age and the mental health of offspring.
PubMed ID
24452535 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(7 Suppl):83-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Liselotte Petersen
Thorkild I A Sørensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, DK-1357 Copenhagen K, Denmark, National Centre for Register-based Research, Taasingegade 1, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. llp@ncrr.dk.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(7 Suppl):83-6
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Introduction: The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. Content: The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. Validity and coverage: The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. CONCLUSION: Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.
PubMed ID
21775360 View in PubMed
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Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269117
Source
Schizophr Res. 2015 Mar;162(1-3):90-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Merete Nordentoft
Janne Tidselbak Larsen
Carsten Bøcker Pedersen
Holger Jelling Sørensen
Mads Villiam Hollegaard
David Michael Hougaard
Preben Bo Mortensen
Liselotte Petersen
Source
Schizophr Res. 2015 Mar;162(1-3):90-6
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Biological Specimen Banks
Blood Specimen Collection
Case-Control Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Neonatal Screening
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible for this association. Therefore, we investigated whether the increased risk can be explained by other risk factors for schizophrenia.
A case-control design was applied. A total of 846 cases with schizophrenia were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. One control was selected for each case, matched on sex and exact date of birth.
Both early and late blood sampling was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. Compared to blood sampling at day 5, sampling at days 0 to 4 after birth was associated with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.46 (95% CI 1.15-1.87) for development of schizophrenia, and sampling at days 6 to 9 and at days 10 to 53 was associated with an IRR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.13-1.98) and 3.00 (95% CI 1.59-5.67), respectively. After adjusting the estimates for place of birth, both parents' psychiatric illness, maternal and paternal age, parents' country of origin, child admission, and parental education and income, the estimates were slightly different. Thus, blood collection at 0-4days was associated with an IRR of 1.27 (95% CI 0.94-1.71), 6-9days 1.31 (95% CI 0.94-1.84) and 10+days 3.52 (95% CI 1.50 to 8.24).
After adjusting risk estimates for well-known risk factors, delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening was associated with unexplained increased risk of schizophrenia. Thus, a key finding is that age at test is a proxy for unobserved risk factors for schizophrenia due to unexplained reasons for late blood sampling. Date of sampling will be included in future analyses of genetic and environmental risk factors.
PubMed ID
25631455 View in PubMed
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37 records – page 1 of 4.