RANK ligand (RANKL) is involved in destruction and osteoporosis in RA. In this study, the relationships between RANKL and ACPA, anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP), cytokines and chemokines were analysed in individuals before the onset of RA symptoms, and their associations with radiological findings at disease onset were assessed.
This was a case-control study performed within the Medical Biobank of Northern Sweden that included 470 pre-symptomatic individuals [334 women and 136 men; mean (s.d.) age 52.3 (9.4) years] using blood samples donated before symptom onset (pre-dating time; 5.0 years) and 96 controls (60 women and 36 men). Plasma was analysed for RANKL (BioVendor, Karasek, Brno, Czech Republic), anti-CCP2 antibodies (Eurodiagnostics, Malmö, Sweden), anti-CarP antibodies (in-house ELISA), ACPA specificities (ISAC-platform, Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden) and cytokines/chemokines (Meso Scale Discovery methods, Rockville, MD, USA). Radiographs of hands and feet were graded using the Larsen score.
The concentration of RANKL was higher in the pre-symptomatic individuals compared with controls; mean (s.e.m.): 0.50 (0.03) vs 0.22 (0.02) nmol/l (P
Antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides of IgG, IgA and IgM isotype and rheumatoid factor of IgM and IgA isotype are increased in unaffected members of multicase rheumatoid arthritis families from northern Sweden.
Rheumatoid factors (RFs) and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs) of IgG, IgA and IgM isotype have been shown to precede disease onset by years.
To evaluate serological risk markers in first-degree relatives from multicase families in relation to genetic and environmental risk factors.
51 multicase families consisting of 163 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (mean±SD age, 60±14 years; disease duration 21 years; 71.8% female) and with 157 first-degree relatives unaffected by RA (54±17 years; 59.9% female) were recruited. Isotypes of antibodies against CCPs (IgG, IgA and IgM) and RFs (IgM and IgA) were determined using automated enzyme immunoassays. Cut-off levels were established using receiver operating characteristic curves based on values for 100 unrelated healthy controls.
The concentrations and frequencies of all anti-CCP and RF isotypes were significantly increased in first-degree relatives and patients with RA compared with unrelated healthy controls. The relative distribution of IgA and IgM isotypes was higher than IgG in the relatives, whereas the IgG isotype dominated in patients with RA. The patients carried human leucocyte antigen-shared epitope (HLA-SE) significantly more often than the relatives (71.4% vs 53.9%, p=0.01), while the frequency of the PTPN22 T variant was similar. HLA-SE, combined with smoking, was significantly related to all combinations of anti-CCP and RF isotypes in patients with RA. No such relationships were found for the first-degree relatives.
All anti-CCP and RF isotypes analysed occurred more commonly in unaffected first-degree relatives from multicase families than in controls, but with different isotype distribution from patients with RA.
Anti-citrullinated-peptide antibodies (ACPA) have been detected in individuals with developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before the onset of symptom, with an initially limited spectrum of reactivities that gradually broadens. The aim was to analyze the evolution of ACPA response pre-dating symptom onset, using four selected citrullinated exogenous and endogenous antigens.
A cohort of 521 individuals sampled before symptoms of RA appeared and 272 population controls were identified from the Biobank of Northern Sweden; 241 samples from patients with early RA were also collected. ACPA were detected by ELISA on viral citrullinated peptides (VCP) derived from Epstein-Barr-virus nuclear antigen (EBNA)1 and EBNA2 (VCP1 and VCP2) and histone-4-derived citrullinated peptides (HCP1 and HCP2).
In pre-symptomatic individuals vs. patients with early RA, anti-VCP1 antibodies were detected in 10.4 % vs. 36.1 %, anti-VCP2 in 17.1 % vs. 52.3 %, anti-HCP1 in 10.2 % vs. 37.3 %, and anti-HCP2 in 16.3 % vs. 48.5 %, respectively. Anti-VCP and anti-HCP concentrations were significantly increased in pre-symptomatic individuals vs. controls (p?
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To analyze the association of the PD-1.3 polymorphism within the PDCD1 gene in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) from the homogeneous population in northern Sweden. The PD-1.3A allele was analyzed in relation to disease manifestations and severity representing various phenotypes of SLE.
The study group comprised 260 patients fulfilling at least 4 of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE during 1 year. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR damage index scores were recorded. Population-based, randomly selected individuals (n = 670) from the same geographic area served as controls. DNA was extracted from blood samples from both patients and controls and was genotyped for the PD-1.3 A/G polymorphism, using an ABI Prism 7900HT Sequence Detection System.
The frequency distribution of alleles, carriers, or genotypes did not differ between patients and controls. The PD-1.3A allele and carriage of the A allele were highly associated with renal disorder (ACR criterion 7) (P = 0.005, odds ratio [OR] 2.71 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-5.55] and P = 0.012, OR 2.62 [95% CI 1.28-5.35], respectively). In regression analysis adjusted for sex and age at disease onset, carriage of the A allele remained significantly associated with renal disorder (P = 0.002, OR 3.54 [95% CI 1.56-8.01]). The presence of proteinuria, as measured by the SLEDAI score, and the presence of renal damage were also significantly associated with carriage of the A allele (P = 0.007, OR 3.88 [95% CI 1.44-10.47] and P = 0.021, OR 2.98 [95% CI 1.18-7.54], respectively).
The PD-1.3A allele is associated with renal manifestations in SLE patients from northern Sweden but not with susceptibility to SLE per se.
Inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes important for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Studies have suggested that the NLRP3 inflammasome influences both the severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated whether functional genetic variants related to the NLRP3 inflammasome influence the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) in patients with RA.
The incidence of CVD was assessed in 522 patients with established RA by a retrospective survey of medical records in combination with a 6-year prospective followup. NLRP3-Q705K and CARD8-C10X genotypes were analyzed in relation to CVD by logistic regression, adjusting for traditional risk factors, antirheumatic treatment, and age at the onset of RA.
Carriage of the NLRP3-Q705K minor allele was associated with an increased risk of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA; OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.0-4.1, p = 0.05), while CARD8-C10X was not associated with any type of CV event. Patients with = 1 variant allele in both polymorphisms had an increased risk of CVD when compared with patients without variant alleles present in both polymorphisms (adjusted OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.42-6.54, p = 0.004). Stratification showed that this risk was confined to stroke/TIA (adjusted OR 5.09, 95% CI 2.27-11.44, p
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors have a substantial role in determining development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and are likely to account for 50-60% of disease susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies have identified non-human leucocyte antigen RA susceptibility loci which associate with RA with low-to-moderate risk. OBJECTIVES: To investigate recently identified RA susceptibility markers using cohorts from six European countries, and perform a meta-analysis including previously published results. METHODS: 3311 DNA samples were collected from patients from six countries (UK, Germany, France, Greece, Sweden and Denmark). Genotype data or DNA samples for 3709 controls were collected from four countries (not Sweden or Denmark). Eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Sequenom MassArray technology. Samples with a >95% success rate and only those SNPs with a genotype success rate of >95% were included in the analysis. Scandinavian patient data were pooled and previously published Swedish control data were accessed as a comparison group. Meta-analysis was used to combine results from this study with all previously published data. RESULTS: After quality control, 3209 patients and 3692 controls were included in the study. Eight markers (ie, rs1160542 (AFF3), rs1678542 (KIF5A), rs2476601 (PTPN22), rs3087243 (CTLA4), rs4810485 (CD40), rs5029937 (6q23), rs10760130 (TRAF1/C5) and rs7574865 (STAT4)) were significantly associated with RA by meta-analysis. All 18 markers were associated with RA when previously published studies were incorporated in the analysis. Data from this study increased the significance for association with RA and nine markers. CONCLUSIONS: In a large European RA cohort further evidence for the association of 18 markers with RA development has been obtained.
ABSTRACT : We analysed relationships between the PTPN22 1858 polymorphism and antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), rheumatoid factors (RFs) and the shared epitope (SE) gene (HLA-DRB1*0404 or 0401) and determined their combined predictive value for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in individuals who subsequently developed RA. This case-control study was nested within the Medical Biobank of Northern Sweden. Patients with RA (n = 92) were identified from amongst blood donors antedating onset of disease by a median of 2.4 (interquartile range 1.2 to 4.9) years. Matched controls were selected randomly from the same cohorts (n = 368). Anti-CCP antibodies and RFs were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Genotyping was performed using an ABI PRISM 7900HT instrument and HLA-SE genes were identified using PCR sequence-specific primers. The 1858T allele and also carriage of T were associated with future onset of RA (odds ratio (OR) = 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-3.61 and OR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.56-4.47, respectively). The combination of the 1858T variant and anti-CCP antibodies gave 100% specificity for the disease. None of the 368 controls expressed this combination. The PTPN22 1858T variant and anti-CCP antibodies were clearly associated (OR = 3.80, 95% CI 1.51-9.57). A combination of the PTPN22 1858T variant and anti-CCP antibodies gave a much higher relative risk (>132.03) for developing RA than the combination of the T variant and HLA-SE (OR = 7.85). The PTPN22 1858T variant was associated with future development of RA. There was an association between the T variant and anti-CCP antibodies and their combination, found only among pre-patients, gives a very high relative risk for development of RA. The combination gave a specificity of 100% for diagnosing RA.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (exon 6) and interleukin-6 (-174) gene polymorphisms are not associated with family history but tumor necrosis factor receptor type II is associated with hypertension in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from northern Sweden.