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A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267019
Source
Nature. 2015 Sep 10;525(7568):234-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-10-2015
Author
Theodore W Wilson
Luis A Ladino
Peter A Alpert
Mark N Breckels
Ian M Brooks
Jo Browse
Susannah M Burrows
Kenneth S Carslaw
J Alex Huffman
Christopher Judd
Wendy P Kilthau
Ryan H Mason
Gordon McFiggans
Lisa A Miller
Juan J Nájera
Elena Polishchuk
Stuart Rae
Corinne L Schiller
Meng Si
Jesús Vergara Temprado
Thomas F Whale
Jenny P S Wong
Oliver Wurl
Jacqueline D Yakobi-Hancock
Jonathan P D Abbatt
Josephine Y Aller
Allan K Bertram
Daniel A Knopf
Benjamin J Murray
Source
Nature. 2015 Sep 10;525(7568):234-8
Date
Sep-10-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols - chemical synthesis - chemistry
Air
Aquatic Organisms - chemistry
Arctic Regions
Atmosphere - chemistry
Diatoms - chemistry
Freezing
Ice
Organic Chemicals - analysis - chemistry
Phytoplankton - chemistry
Seawater - chemistry
Abstract
The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean.
Notes
Comment In: Nature. 2015 Sep 10;525(7568):194-526354479
PubMed ID
26354482 View in PubMed
Less detail

Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282891
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 May 30;
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-30-2017
Author
Emma L Mungall
Jonathan P D Abbatt
Jeremy J B Wentzell
Alex K Y Lee
Jennie L Thomas
Marjolaine Blais
Michel Gosselin
Lisa A Miller
Tim Papakyriakou
Megan D Willis
John Liggio
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 May 30;
Date
May-30-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Summertime Arctic shipboard observations of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as organic acids, key precursors of climatically active secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are consistent with a novel source of OVOCs to the marine boundary layer via chemistry at the sea surface microlayer. Although this source has been studied in a laboratory setting, organic acid emissions from the sea surface microlayer have not previously been observed in ambient marine environments. Correlations between measurements of OVOCs, including high levels of formic acid, in the atmosphere (measured by an online high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer) and dissolved organic matter in the ocean point to a marine source for the measured OVOCs. That this source is photomediated is indicated by correlations between the diurnal cycles of the OVOC measurements and solar radiation. In contrast, the OVOCs do not correlate with levels of isoprene, monoterpenes, or dimethyl sulfide. Results from box model calculations are consistent with heterogeneous chemistry as the source of the measured OVOCs. As sea ice retreats and dissolved organic carbon inputs to the Arctic increase, the impact of this source on the summer Arctic atmosphere is likely to increase. Globally, this source should be assessed in other marine environments to quantify its impact on OVOC and SOA burdens in the atmosphere, and ultimately on climate.
PubMed ID
28559340 View in PubMed
Less detail

A multiple source methodology for the surveillance of fetal alcohol syndrome--The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network (FASSNet).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4418
Source
Teratology. 2002;66 Suppl 1:S41-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002