Pregnancy is characterised by large weight gain over a short period, and often a notable change in mode of transportation. This makes pregnancy suitable for examining the plausible, but in the scientific literature still unclear, association between active transportation and weight gain. We hypothesize that women continuing an active mode of transportation to work or school from pre- to early pregnancy will have a lower gestational weight gain (GWG) than those who change to a less active mode of transportation.
We analysed prospective data from the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial. Between September 2009 and February 2013 606 women were consecutively enrolled in median gestational week 16 (range; 8-20). Of 219 women who used an active mode of transportation (biking, walking, public transportation) pre-pregnancy, 66 (30%) converted to a less active mode in early pregnancy ("active-less active" group), and 153 (70%) continued with active transportation ("active-active" group). Pre-pregnancy weight was self-reported. Weight at gestational (GA) weeks 16, 30, 36, and at term delivery was objectively measured. Weight gain was compared between the two groups. Linear mixed effects analysis of the repeated weight measures was performed including the group*time interaction.
A significant overall group effect was observed for the four time points together ("active-active" group: 77.3 kg vs. "active-less active" group: 78.8 kg, p?=?0.008). The interaction term group*time was significant indicating different weight gain throughout pregnancy for the two groups; the mean differences between the groups were 0.7 kg at week 16, 1.4 kg at week 30, 2.1 kg at week 36, and 2.2 kg at term delivery, respectively.
The findings indicate that active transportation is one possible approach to prevent excessive weight gain in pregnancy.
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To describe changes in consumption of different types of beverages from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy, and to examine associations with maternal age, educational level and BMI.
Cross-sectional design. Participants answered an FFQ at inclusion into a randomized controlled trial, the Fit for Delivery (FFD) trial, in median gestational week 15 (range: 9-20), reporting current consumption and in retrospect how often they drank the different beverages pre-pregnancy.
Eight local antenatal clinics in southern Norway from September 2009 to February 2013.
Five hundred and seventy-five healthy pregnant nulliparous women.
Pre-pregnancy, 27 % reported drinking alcohol at least once weekly, compared with none in early pregnancy (P
A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age.
Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model.
The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p?
The effectiveness of prenatal lifestyle intervention to prevent gestational diabetes and improve maternal glucose metabolism remains to be established. The Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) randomized, controlled trial studied the effect of a combined lifestyle intervention provided to a general population, and found significantly lower gestational weight gain among intervention participants but no improvement in obstetrical outcomes or the proportion of large infants. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of the NFFD intervention on glucose metabolism, including an assessment of the subgroups of normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.
Healthy, non-diabetic women expecting their first child, with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) =19 kg/m2, age = 18 years and a singleton pregnancy of =20 gestational-weeks were enrolled from healthcare clinics in southern Norway. Gestational weight gain was the primary endpoint. Participants (n = 606) were individually randomized to intervention (two dietary consultations and access to twice-weekly exercise groups) or control group (routine prenatal care). The effect of intervention on glucose metabolism was a secondary endpoint, measuring glucose (fasting and 2-h following 75-g glucose load), insulin, homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and leptin levels at gestational-week 30.
Blood samples from 557 (91.9%) women were analyzed. For the total group, intervention resulted in reduced insulin (adj. Mean diff -0.91 mU/l, p = 0.045) and leptin levels (adj. Mean diff -207 pmol/l, p = 0.021) compared to routine care, while glucose levels were unchanged. However, the effect of intervention on both fasting and 2-h glucose was modified by pre-pregnancy BMI (interaction p = 0.030 and p = 0.039, respectively). For overweight/obese women (n = 158), intervention was associated with increased risk of at least one glucose measurement exceeding International Association of Pregnancy and Diabetes Study Group thresholds (33.7% vs. 13.9%, adj. OR 3.89, p = 0.004).
The Norwegian Fit for Delivery intervention lowered neither glucose levels nor GDM incidence, despite reductions in insulin and leptin. Prenatal combined lifestyle interventions designed for a general population may be unsuited to reduce GDM risk, particularly among overweight/obese women, who may require earlier and more targeted interventions.
ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01001689 , registered July 2, 2009, confirmed completed October 26, 2009 (retrospectively registered).
The Fit for Delivery study: rationale for the recommendations and test-retest reliability of a dietary score measuring adherence to 10 specific recommendations for prevention of excessive weight gain during pregnancy.
Aiming at preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy, 10 specific dietary recommendations are given to pregnant women in the intervention arm of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (FFD) study. This paper presents the rationale and test-retest reliability of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a dietary score measuring adherence to the recommendations. The study is part of the ongoing FFD study, a randomised, controlled, intervention study in nulliparous pregnant women. A 43-item FFQ was developed for the FFD study. A dietary score was constructed from 10 subscales corresponding to the 10 dietary recommendations. Adding the subscales yielded a score from 0 to 10 with increasing score indicating healthier dietary behaviour. The score was divided into tertiles, grouping participants into low, medium and high adherence to the dietary recommendations. Pregnant women attending ultrasound screening at about week 19 of pregnancy were asked to complete the FFQ twice, 2 weeks apart. Of 154 pregnant women completing the first questionnaire, 106 (69%) completed the form on both occasions and was included in the study. The test-retest correlations of the score and subscales were r?=?0.68 and r?=?0.56-0.84, respectively (both P?=?0.001). There was 68% test-retest correct classification of the score and 70-87% of the subscales. In conclusion, acceptable test-retest reliability of the FFQ and the dietary score was found. The score will be used in the FFD study to measure adherence to the dietary recommendations throughout pregnancy and in the following year post-partum.
The beneficial effects of physical activity during pregnancy for the mother and offspring have been reported by several studies but there are conflicting results concerning the possible effect of physical activity on the course of labor and risk of cesarean delivery. This study presents secondary analyses from the Norwegian Fit for Delivery randomized controlled trial, aiming at studying the effect of a lifestyle intervention including group exercise classes, as well as the possible influence of physical activity level in late pregnancy, on labor outcomes.
Healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy were randomized to an intervention group, n = 303 (dietary counseling and twice-weekly exercise classes) or a control group, n = 303 (standard care). The participants were analyzed both by randomization and as a cohort comparing women with lowest (quartile 1, 0 metabolic equivalent of task-hours moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/week) (n = 140) vs. highest (quartile 4, =16 metabolic equivalent of task-hours moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/week) (n = 131) physical activity level in late pregnancy, assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.
The intervention group had a longer first stage of labor compared with the control group (293 ± 202 min vs. 257 ± 181 min, p = 0.030). No differences between the randomization groups were seen for time spent in second stage of labor, prolonged labor or mode of delivery. In the total sample, women with the highest physical activity level had lower odds ratio (OR) of acute cesarean delivery (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.97, p = 0.044) than did those with the lowest physical activity-level.
A significantly longer first stage of labor was observed in the intervention group than in the control group. A high physical activity level in late pregnancy was associated with lower odds of acute cesarean delivery compared with a low physical activity level.