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Antibodies against Phosphorylcholine among New Guineans Compared to Swedes: An Aspect of the Hygiene/Missing Old Friends Hypothesis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280967
Source
Immunol Invest. 2017 Jan;46(1):59-69
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Johan Frostegård
WenJing Tao
Lennart Råstam
Ulf Lindblad
Staffan Lindeberg
Source
Immunol Invest. 2017 Jan;46(1):59-69
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antibodies - blood
Atherosclerosis - immunology
Autoimmune Diseases - immunology
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Hygiene Hypothesis
Male
Middle Aged
New Guinea
Phosphorylcholine - immunology
Risk
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
We here study antibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) which we reported to be inversely associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and autoimmune conditions. In previous studies, we determined that this inverse association is more pronounced at low levels with high risk and at high levels, with decreased risk. We compare individuals from Kitava, New Guinea (with low risk of these conditions), with Swedish controls.
We studied a group of 178 individuals from Kitava (age 20-86), and compared those above age 40 (n = 108) with a group of age- and sex-matched individuals from a population based cohort in Sweden (n = 108). Traditional risk factors for CVD and fatty acids were determined. IgM, IgG, and IgA anti-PC were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
All anti-PC measures were significantly lower among Swedish controls as compared to Kitavans (p
PubMed ID
27611006 View in PubMed
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Antihypertensive drug treatment in a Swedish community: Skaraborg Hypertension and Diabetes Project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47547
Source
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2002 Jan-Feb;11(1):45-54
Publication Type
Article
Author
Erik Bøg-Hansen
Ulf Lindblad
Jonas Ranstam
Arne Melander
Lennart Råstam
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. fou-enheten.skara@swipnet.se
Source
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2002 Jan-Feb;11(1):45-54
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - therapeutic use
Age Distribution
Aged
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Calcium Channel Blockers - therapeutic use
Comparative Study
Diabetes Mellitus - drug therapy
Diuretics - therapeutic use
Drug Utilization Review
Female
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy
Male
National Health Programs - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Sweden
Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe and compare the pattern of antihypertensive drug prescriptions during different time periods. METHODS: Antihypertensive prescriptions were registered in all patients who underwent an annual follow-up during 1998 (n = 984), 1992-1993 (n = 924), and 1981 (n = 689), at the hypertension outpatient clinic in primary health care, Skara, Sweden. RESULTS: From 1981 to 1998 the total prescriptions of thiazides declined from 61 to 10% (p
PubMed ID
11998551 View in PubMed
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Associations between unemployment and cardiovascular risk factors varies with the unemployment rate: the Cardiovascular Risk Factor Study in Southern Sweden (CRISS).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67241
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2003;31(4):305-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Karin M Henriksson
Ulf Lindblad
Bo Agren
Peter Nilsson-Ehle
Lennart Råstam
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, (Malmö) Lund University, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2003;31(4):305-11
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cholesterol - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Education
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Leisure Activities
Linear Models
Male
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
AIMS: To investigate associations between CVD risk factors and socio-economic status (SES) in middle-age men during a period of economic changes. METHODS: Crossectional surveys at age 37, 40 and 43 in a birth cohort of men in Helsingborg, Sweden. All male residents born 1953-4 (n = 1460) were invited; participation rates were 68% (n = 991) at baseline. Of these enrolled, 78% (n = 770) were re-examined after three years and 71% (n = 702) again after six years follow-up. Main outcome measures were body mass index (BMI), S-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), smoking and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), education, employment, ethnicity. RESULTS: Baseline unemployment rate was low, n = 23 (2.4%), but three and six years later it had increased to 61 (8.2%) and 51 (7.5%) respectively. At baseline, BMI and S-cholesterol were significantly higher in unemployed than in employed men (deltaBMI 1.6 kg/m2, CI: 0.2; 2.9, delta S-cholesterol 0.6 mmol/L, CI: 0.1; 1.0), and in men with short versus long education (delta BMI 0.9 kg/m2, CI: 0.4; 1.4, delta S-cholesterol 0.2 mmol/L, CI: 0.03: 0.4), independent of other SES factors. Over the study period crossectional associations with employment status disappeared for BMI, but remained between short education and BMI. Short education was also associated with a significant increase in BMI (delta = 0.4 kg/m2, CI: 0.1; 0.7) during 6-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that associations between unemployment and CVD risk factors were lost when unemployment rates increased. When the attributable risk of unemployment associated with CVD risk factors is estimated, it is vital to consider the general unemployment rates in society.
PubMed ID
15099037 View in PubMed
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Body composition, ethnicity and alcohol consumption as determinants for the development of blood pressure in a birth cohort of young middle-aged men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9599
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2003;18(10):955-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Karin Maria Henriksson
Ulf Lindblad
Bo Gullberg
Bo Agren
Peter Nilsson-Ehle
Lennart Råstam
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden. karin.henriksson@psychepi.lu.se
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2003;18(10):955-63
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - ethnology
Anthropometry
Blood Pressure - physiology
Body Composition - physiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - ethnology - physiopathology
Cholesterol - blood
Cohort Studies
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - ethnology - physiopathology
Leisure Activities
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
AIM: To investigate the development of blood pressure (BP) determinants over a period of 6 years in a birth cohort of middle-aged Swedish men. METHODS: Men born 1953 and 1954 living in Helsingborg, Southern Sweden, were surveyed at 37, 40 and 43 years of age. Baseline participation rate was 68% (n = 991). S-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and anthropomorphic measurements were collected and a questionnaire covering ethnicity, smoking, leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and alcohol consumption was completed. RESULTS: At these surveys, SBP means were: 131, 132, 135 mm Hg and DBP were 83, 83 and 85 mm Hg respectively. Body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), S-Cholesterol and alcohol consumption consistently showed cross-sectional positive associations with SBP and DBP. One mmol/L higher S-Cholesterol at baseline predicted an increase in SBP by 1.16 mm Hg (confidence interval, CI: 0.25; 2.07) over 6 years. At age 40, there was a 4.4 mm Hg (p
PubMed ID
14598926 View in PubMed
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Changes in health beliefs after labelling with hypercholesterolaemia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53759
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2002;30(1):76-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Margareta Troein
Lennart Råstam
Staffan Selander
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. margareta.troein@smi.mas.lu.se
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2002;30(1):76-9
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude to Health
Case-Control Studies
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - complications - diagnosis - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology - etiology
Patient compliance
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients' health beliefs influence their willingness to comply with medical advice. In an earlier study, it was found that men with a previous history of information on risk factors for ischaemic heart disease expressed more feelings of threat to their health than did men without this experience. As anxiety may have adverse effects, such as making patients avoid the desired action, this could complicate adequate patient treatment. AIMS: To investigate the impact on health beliefs caused by participation in a screening programme for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, including individualized information to patients with hypercholesterolaemia. METHODS: A random sample of middle-aged, urban men participating in a health screening completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, medical history, lifestyle, and health beliefs. Blood pressures and plasma cholesterol values were measured. Four months after the initial screening, hypercholesterolaemic men and controls completed the questionnaire again. RESULTS: In a univariate analysis, no differences in health belief indices were found between cases and controls at the baseline screening. Controls achieved lower values of the indices "perceived control over illness" and "medical motivation" at follow-up. In a matched case-control design, the differences in "medical motivation" increased between cases and controls because controls reported lower values. "Perceived threat to health" did not change, and it is suggested that this is due to the supportive information to the patients. CONCLUSION: Individualized and supportive patient information on risk factors for cardiovascular disease does not increase patients' perceptions of threat.
PubMed ID
11928837 View in PubMed
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Circulating concentrations of endothelin-1 predict coronary heart disease in women but not in men: a longitudinal observational study in the Vara-Skövde Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274414
Source
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2015;15:146
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Bledar Daka
Josefin Olausson
Charlotte A Larsson
Margareta I Hellgren
Lennart Råstam
Per-Anders Jansson
Ulf Lindblad
Source
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2015;15:146
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Biomarkers - blood
Coronary Disease - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Endothelin-1 - blood
Female
Humans
Incidence
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Predictive value of tests
Prognosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Up-Regulation
Abstract
The vasoconstricting peptide endothelin-1 has been proposed to be a marker of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to investigate whether circulating endothelin-1 levels predict coronary heart disease (CHD) in Sweden.
In 2002-2005, 2816 adult participants (30-74 years) were randomly selected from two municipalities in south-western Sweden. Cardiovascular risk factors and endothelin-1 levels were assessed at baseline, and incident CHD was followed-up in all participants through 2011. After exclusion of 50 participants due to known CHD at baseline and 21 participants because of unsuccessful analysis of endothelin-1, 2745 participants were included in the study. In total, 72 CHD events (52 in men and 20 in women) were registered during the follow-up time.
We showed that baseline circulating endothelin-1 levels were higher in women with incident CHD than in women without CHD (3.2?pg/ml, SE: 0.36 vs 2.4?pg/ml, SE: 0.03, p?=?0.003) whereas this difference was not observed in men (2.3?pg/ml, SE: 0.16 vs 2.3?pg/ml, SE: 0.04, p?=?0.828). An age-adjusted Cox proportional regression analysis showed an enhanced risk of CHD with increasing baseline endothelin-1 levels in women (hazard ratio (HR)?=?1.51, 95?% CI?=?1.1-2.1, p?=?0.015) but not in men (HR?=?0.98, 95?% CI?=?0.8-1.2, p?=?0.854). Furthermore, the predictive value of endothelin-1 for incident CHD in women was still significant after adjustments for age, HOMA-IR, apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA1 and smoking (HR?=?1.53, CI?=?1.1-1.2, p?=?0.024).
Circulating endothelin-1 levels may predict CHD in women.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26573599 View in PubMed
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Clusters of AMI risk factors and their association with left ventricular hypertrophy: a population-based study within the Skaraborg Project, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107130
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 15;168(6):5416-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2013
Author
Charlotte A Larsson
Bledar Daka
Bo Gullberg
Lennart Råstam
Ulf Lindblad
Author Affiliation
Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, Skåne University Hospital, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, Box 454, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. Electronic address: charlotte_a.larsson@med.lu.se.
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 15;168(6):5416-21
Date
Oct-15-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Cluster analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular - epidemiology - ultrasonography
Life Style
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sex Characteristics
Sex Distribution
Smoking - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are known to cluster and to be differently distributed in men and women. The aim of this study was to sex-specifically explore clusters of acknowledged AMI risk factors by factor analysis, and to study whether such clusters are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), used as a subclinical measure of CHD.
In 2001-2005, 2328 subjects (30-74 years) were randomly selected from two municipalities in Sweden (participation-rate 76%) and were assessed with regard to cardiovascular risk factors; 852 participants also had an echocardiographic examination performed.
Factor analysis identified three identical factors in men and women. WHR, HOMA-ir, systolic blood pressure, and ApoB/ApoA1 loaded significantly on the principal "metabolic factor", leisure-time physical activity and self-rated health loaded significantly on the "vitality factor", and smoking and alcohol consumption loaded significantly on the "addiction factor". The metabolic factor was associated with LVH in both men (P
PubMed ID
24051266 View in PubMed
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Effect of neighborhood social participation on individual use of hormone replacement therapy and antihypertensive medication: a multilevel analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18467
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2003 May 1;157(9):774-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2003
Author
Juan Merlo
John W Lynch
Min Yang
Martin Lindström
Per Olof Ostergren
Niels Kristian Rasmusen
Lennart Råstam
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. juan.melo@smi.mas.lu.se
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2003 May 1;157(9):774-83
Date
May-1-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Antihypertensive Agents - supply & distribution
Cohort Studies
Emigration and Immigration
Estrogen Replacement Therapy - utilization
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Pharmacoepidemiology
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Social Environment
Sweden - epidemiology
Women's health
Abstract
The authors investigated a possible contextual effect of neighborhood on individual use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and antihypertensive medication (AHM) and the impact of neighborhood social participation on individual use of these medications. They attempted to disentangle contextual from individual influences. Multilevel logistic regression modeling was used to analyze data on 15,456 women aged 45-73 years (first level) residing in 95 neighborhoods (second level) of the city of Malmö, Sweden (250,000 inhabitants) who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (1991-1996). AHM use was studied among 7,558 participants with defined hypertension. Of the total variability in medication use in this population, only 1.7% (HRT) and 0.5% (AHM) was between neighborhoods. After adjustment for age, individual socioeconomic factors, individual low levels of social participation, and health and behavioral variables, no neighborhood effect on AHM use was found. However, women living in neighborhoods with low social participation were much less likely to use HRT (odds ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.63), especially if they themselves experienced low social participation (synergy index, 1.53) or were immigrants (synergy index, 1.68). The Malmö neighborhoods were homogeneous with regard to HRT and especially AHM use. However, differences in neighborhood social participation affected HRT use independently of individual characteristics.
PubMed ID
12727671 View in PubMed
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[Equally good care of myocardial infarction in Sweden today. Geographic differences in mortality are without significance for the individual patient]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53204
Source
Lakartidningen. 2005 Jan 3-16;102(1-2):20-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
Juan Merlo
Anders Håkansson
Anders Beckman
Ulf Lindblad
Martin Lindström
Ulf-G Gerdtham
Lennart Råstam
Author Affiliation
Samhällsmedicinska institutionen, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmö. juan.merlo@smi.mas.lu.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 2005 Jan 3-16;102(1-2):20-3
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Female
Hospital Mortality
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - mortality - therapy
Odds Ratio
Quality of Health Care
Regression Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
It is a known fact that the 1990s brought a decrease in mortality after myocardial infarction in Sweden but that differences in mortality rates following myocardial infarction still remain between the Swedish counties. Unresolved, however, are questions as to what these inter-county differences mean for the individual patient and what role hospital care plays in this context. We analysed all patients aged 64-85 years who were hospitalised following diagnosis of myocardial infarction in Sweden during the period 1993-1996. To gain an understanding of the relevance of geographical differences in mortality after myocardial infarction for the individual patient we applied multi-level regression analysis and calculated county and hospital median odds ratios (MORs) in relation to 28-day mortality. For hospitalised patients with myocardial infarction, being cared for in another hospital with higher mortality would increase the risk of dying by 9% (MOR = l.09) in men and 12% in women. If these patients moved to another county with higher mortality the risk would increase by 7% and 3%, respectively. The small geographical differences in 28-day mortality after myocardial infarction found in Sweden suggest a high degree of equality across the country; however, further improvement could be achieved in hospital care, especially for women--an issue that deserves further analysis.
Notes
Comment In: Lakartidningen. 2005 Jan 3-16;102(1-2):9-1015707101
PubMed ID
15707102 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with multiple medication use in different age groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147316
Source
Ann Pharmacother. 2009 Dec;43(12):1978-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Janne Moen
Karolina Antonov
Charlotte A Larsson
Ulf Lindblad
J Lars G Nilsson
Lennart Råstam
Lena Ring
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. moen.janne@gmail.com
Source
Ann Pharmacother. 2009 Dec;43(12):1978-85
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - drug therapy
Female
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity - drug therapy
Physician's Practice Patterns - standards - statistics & numerical data
Polypharmacy
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Abstract
Multiple medicine use among elderly persons is likely to be the result of treatment regimens developed over a long period of time. By learning more about how multiple medication use develops, the quality of prescribing may be improved across the adult lifespan.
To describe patterns of multiple medicine use in the general Swedish population and its association with sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health status factors.
Data from a cross-sectional population health survey collected during 2001-2005 from 2816 randomly selected Swedish residents (age 30-75 y; response rate 76%) were analyzed. Multiple medicine use was restricted to prescription drugs and defined as the 75th percentile; that is, the 25% of the study group using the highest number of drugs per individual.
Seventy-one percent of the respondents used some kind of drug, 51.5% used one or more prescription drug, 38.4% used one or more over-the-counter (OTC) medication, and 8.3% used one or more herbal preparation. The cutoff amounts defining multiple medicine use were: 2 or more medications for 30- to 49-year-olds, 3 or more for 50- to 64-year-olds, and 5 or more for 65- to 75-year-olds. No association between use of multiple medicines and use of OTC drugs or herbal preparations was found. When drugs were classified into therapeutic subgroups, 76.3% of those aged 30-49 years, 97.9% of those aged 50-64 years, and 100% of those aged 65-75 years were taking a unique combination of drugs. Multivariate analyses showed that diabetes and poor self-rated health were associated with multiple medicine use in all age cohorts. Female sex and hypertension were associated with multiple medicine use among those aged 30-49 and 50-64 years, current smoking among those aged 50-64 years, and obesity among those aged 65-75 years.
Multiple medicine use was associated with morbidity and poor self-rated health across all age groups. The vast majority of users of multiple drugs are taking a unique combination of medications.
PubMed ID
19920158 View in PubMed
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27 records – page 1 of 3.