The risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) can be assessed by use of the CHADS2 and the CHA2DS2-VASc score system. We hypothesised that these risk scores and their individual components could also be applied to patients paced for sick sinus syndrome (SSS) to evaluate risk of stroke and death.
Prospective cohort study.
All Danish pacemaker centres and selected centres in the UK and Canada.
Risk factors were recorded prior to pacemaker implantation in 1415 patients with SSS participating in the Danish Multicenter Randomized Trial on Single Lead Atrial Pacing versus Dual Chamber Pacing in Sick Sinus Syndrome (Danpace) trial. Development of stroke was assessed at follow-up visits and by evaluation of patient charts. Mortality was assessed from the civil registration system.
Patients were randomised to AAIR (N = 707) or DDDR pacing (N = 708).
Stroke and death during follow-up.
Mean follow-up was 4.3 ± 2.5 years. In the AAIR group 6.9% patients developed stroke versus 6.1% in the DDDR group (NS). There was a significant association between CHADS2 score and the development of stroke (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.64, p
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No large randomized multicentre trial has evaluated the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) vs. anti-arrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy as a first-line treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF).
The Medical ANtiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation (MANTRA-PAF) trial is a randomized, controlled, parallel group, multicentre study designed to test whether catheter-based RFA is superior to optimized AAD therapy in suppressing relapse within 24 months of symptomatic and/or asymptomatic AF in patients with paroxysmal AF without prior AAD therapy. The primary endpoint is cumulative AF burden on repeated 7 days Holter monitoring. Secondary endpoints are: thromboembolic events, hospitalization due to arrhythmia, pro-arrhythmic events, procedure/treatment-related side effects, health economics, quality of life, and change in left ventricular function. Ten centres in Scandinavia and Germany are participating in the study. Enrolment was started in 2005 and as of November 2008, 260 patients have been enrolled into the study. It is expected that enrolment will end by March 2009, when 300 patients have been included.
The MANTRA-PAF trial will determine whether catheter-based RFA is superior to optimized AAD therapy as a first-line treatment in suppressing long-term relapse of symptomatic and/or asymptomatic AF.
Aim: There are few data on seasonal variation in stroke and seasonal variation in mortality after stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. We examined the seasonal pattern in stroke occurrence and the effect of the season on mortality after stroke in patients with a history of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Methods:We identified all individuals, aged 40-89 years, with an incident diagnosis of stroke of any nature (ischemic or hemorrhagic) in the 1980-2002 period and no history of heart valve disease and a previous or concomitant diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the Danish National Registry of Patients. Subjects were followed in the Danish Civil Registration System for emigration and vital status. We used periodic regression models to estimate the peak-trough ratio stratified by sex, age and comorbid medical conditions. Seasonal effect on mortality after stroke was analyzed in a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The relative incidence of stroke estimated as the ratio of the incidence in the month of the peak (January) to the incidence in the month of the trough (July) was 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.15). The relative incidence of stroke was similar for men and women, did not differ by age (stratified by age 75 years) and was essentially similar for comorbid conditions considered. There was no seasonal effect on mortality after stroke. Conclusions: The occurrence of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation is modestly higher during the winter. Stroke-associated mortality does not vary by season. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Time to treatment and three-year mortality after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction-a DANish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction-2 (DANAMI-2) substudy.
In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), early reperfusion is believed to improve left ventricular systolic function and reduce mortality; however, long-term (>1 year) data are sparse. In the DANish Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction-2 (DANAMI-2) study, 686 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were treated with pPCI. Long-term mortality was obtained during 3 years of follow-up. We classified the patients according to the symptom-to-balloon time ( or =5 hours). The groups were compared using a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for confounding factors. The left ventricular systolic ejection fraction was estimated by echocardiography before discharge. Coronary flow was evaluated using the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score. Mortality did not differ between the 2 earliest symptom-to-balloon groups, and they were therefore combined into 1 group in the analysis of survival. Mortality was significantly increased for patients with a symptom-to-balloon time > or =5 hours (hazard ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.51 to 3.67, p 40%, and greater 3-year survival in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with pPCI.
BACKGROUND: The incidence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation is increasing in the USA, England, Wales, Scotland and Denmark, and the mortality rate in patients with diagnosed atrial fibrillation has been reported to be declining in Scotland and Denmark. We undertook this study to examine recent trends in incidence and mortality in subjects with a hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or flutter in Denmark from 1980 to 1999 by sex, 10-year age group and conditions of comorbidity. METHODS: We identified all individuals, aged 40-89 years, with an incident hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or flutter in the Danish National Registry of Patients, and subjects were followed in the Danish Civil Registration System. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazard models to estimate trends in mortality. RESULTS: Atrial fibrillation or flutter was diagnosed in 131,728 subjects (68,660 men and 63,068 women), and the incidence of a hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or flutter more than doubled during the study period. The hazard ratios for mortality adjusted for 10-year age group, conditions of comorbidity and mortality trend in the Danish population in the last 5-year period compared to the first 5-year period were 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.78-0.82) in men, and 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.84) in women. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of a hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or flutter more than doubled, and the 10-year age group- and comorbidity- and general population-adjusted mortality decreased, equally, from the first to the last 5-year period by 20% in men and 18% in women.
Aim: We examined trends in incidence of stroke of any nature (ischemic and/or hemorrhagic) in subjects with a hospital diagnosis of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation or flutter in Denmark from 1980 to 2002 by sex, age and conditions of comorbidity. Methods: We identified all individuals, aged 40-89 years, with an incident hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or flutter and no history of stroke or heart valve disease in the Danish National Registry of Patients, and subjects were followed in the Danish National Registry of Patients for occurrence of an incident diagnosis of stroke of any nature (ischemic and/or hemorrhagic) and in the Danish Civil Registration System (emigration and vital status). We used multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate trends in incidence of stroke. Results: Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation or flutter was diagnosed in 141,493 subjects (75,126 men and 66,367 women), and during follow-up 15,964 subjects had an incident diagnosis of stroke. The hazard ratios for stroke in the last 3-year period compared to the first 5-year period, adjusted for 10-year age group, conditions of comorbidity, and general stroke trend in the Danish population were 0.78 (95% CI 0.70-0.86) in men, and 0.80 (95% CI 0.72-0.88) in women. The reduction in risk of stroke by calendar year was most prominent in patients aged 40-74 years. Conclusion: We observed a modest decrease in risk of stroke in subject with atrial fibrillation in Denmark during calendar years 1980-2002. However, we could not control for any changes in diagnostic performance, admission practice, and medical management of patients with atrial fibrillation. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.