Injuries represent an important cause of mortality among young adults. Longitudinal studies on risk factors are scarce. We studied associations between adolescents' perceived health and health behaviour and injury death.
A prospective cohort of 57,407 Finns aged 14 to 18 years was followed for an average of 11.4 years. The end-point of study was injury death or termination of follow-up in 2001. The relationships of eight health and health behaviour characteristics with injury death were studied with adjusted Cox's proportional hazard model.
We identified 298 (0.5%) injury deaths, 232 (0.9%) in men and 66 (0.2%) in women. The mean age at death was 23.8 years. In the models adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic background, the strongest risk factors for injury death were recurring drunkenness (HR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.4-3.1) and daily smoking (HR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2). Poor health did not predict injury death. Unintentional and intentional injury deaths had similar health and health behavioural risk factors.
Health compromising behaviour adopted at adolescence has a clear impact on the risk of injury death in adulthood independent from socioeconomic background. On the other hand, poor health as such is not a significant predictor of injury death. Promotion of healthy lifestyle among adolescents as part of public health programmes would seem an appropriate way to contribute to adolescent injury prevention.
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Cites: Lancet. 2007 Jun 16;369(9578):2001-917574092
The basis of self-perceived physical competence is built in childhood and school personnel have an important role in this developmental process. We investigated the association between initial self-perceived physical competence and reported leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) longitudinally in 10-, 12-, and 15-year-old children.
This longitudinal follow-up study comprises pupils from an elementary school cohort (N = 1346) in the city of Turku, Finland (175,000 inhabitants). The self-perceived physical competence (fitness and appearance) and LTPA data were collected with questionnaires. The full longitudinal data were available from 571 pupils based on repeated studies at the ages of 10, 12, and 15 years in 2004, 2006, and 2010. We analyzed the association of self-perceived physical competence and LTPA using regression models.
Self-perceived physical competence was positively associated with LTPA at all ages (10 years p
To study the associations between home food availability and dietary patterns among pre-school children.
Cross-sectional study in which parents of the participating children filled in an FFQ and reported how often they had certain foods in their homes. We derived dietary pattern scores using principal component analysis, and composite scores describing the availability of fruits and vegetables as well as sugar-enriched foods in the home were created for each participant. We used multilevel models to investigate the associations between availability and dietary pattern scores.
The DAGIS study, Finland.
The participants were 864 Finnish 3-6-year-old children recruited from sixty-six pre-schools. The analyses included 711 children with sufficient data.
We identified three dietary patterns explaining 16·7 % of the variance. The patterns were named 'sweets-and-treats' (high loadings of e.g. sweet biscuits, chocolate, ice cream), 'health-conscious' (high loadings of e.g. nuts, natural yoghurt, berries) and 'vegetables-and-processed meats' (high loadings of e.g. vegetables, cold cuts, fruit). In multivariate models, the availability of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (ß=-0·05, P
Energy drinks contain large amounts of caffeine. Their effects on adolescent well-being are poorly known. We examined the relationship of energy drink consumption with health complaints and late bedtime among 13-year-olds.
A classroom survey was conducted on all 7th graders in the Helsinki metropolitan region, Finland (73 % responded; n = 9446). Logistic regression analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used.
The prevalence of health complaints increased as energy drink consumption increased from non-consumers to several times/day. Late bedtime (=11 PM) increased correspondingly. Those consuming energy drinks several times/day exhibited increased odds of experiencing daily health complaints compared with non-consumers: headache OR (adjusted) = 4.6 (2.8-7.7), sleeping problems OR = 3.6 (2.2-5.8), irritation OR = 4.1 (2.7-6.1), tiredness/fatigue OR = 3.7 (2.4-5.7), and late bedtime OR = 7.8 (5.7-10.9). In SEM, energy drink consumption had a direct effect on health complaints and late bedtime and an indirect effect on health complaints via late bedtime.
Energy drinks, late bedtime, and health complaints form a behavior pattern that is worth considering in schools, home and clinical settings when adolescents complain about headaches, problems with sleeping and corresponding symptoms.
A longitudinal study design is used to find out whether health and health behaviours at age 12-16 predict educational level in early adulthood. The purpose is to study direct (based on health) and indirect (based on health behaviours) health-related selection mechanisms in adolescence. These mechanisms contribute to the allocation of people into various educational positions and thus to the creation of socio-economic health differences in adulthood. Baseline data at age 12-16 from the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey (Finland) in 1981, 1983 and 1985 were linked with data on highest attained education at age 27-33, obtained from the Register of Completed Education in 1998. In the baseline surveys, all 12-, 14- and 16-year-olds born within a specified range of birth dates in July 1964, 1966, 1968, or 1970 were included in the samples (N=11149). The response rate in the mailed surveys varied between 74% and 88% in boys and between 85% and 92% in girls. Associations between baseline variables and attained educational level were assessed by polychotomous logistic regression analysis.Health-compromising behaviours and poor perceived health in adolescence predicted low educational level in adulthood. Several behaviours had independent associations with attained educational level, while associations between health and educational level were mostly accounted for by school achievement and sociodemographic background, which were strong and independent predictors of educational level. The study indicates that in adolescence, indirect selection based on health behaviours, rather than direct selection by perceived health, contributes to the production of socio-economic health differences.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQL) in a total cohort of general school children.
The study population consisted of the children starting 4th grade (age 9-10) in Finnish primary schools in autumn 2004 (n = 1,346) and their parents in a city of 175,000 inhabitants. Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL 4.0) was used for assessment of HRQL. The response rate was 81% for the children (n = 1,091). Most children had parents who participated (n = 999).
The children reported highest HRQL mean values in physical (85.00, SD 10.95) and social (84.71, SD 14.28), and lowest in school (78.89, SD 14.53) and emotional (75.43, SD 15.67), functioning scales. Girls reported significantly lower emotional (t = -2.43, P = 0.02) functioning than boys. Child self reports show lower social (t = -2.57, P = 0.01) and school (t = -3.44, P = 0.0006) functioning, and higher emotional (t = 5.82, P
This paper describes the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) survey process and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in children's energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs), meaning physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviors, and long-term stress that serve as the basis for the intervention development. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2015?2016 in 66 Finnish preschools in eight municipalities involving 864 children (3?6 years old). Parents, preschool personnel, and principals assessed environmental factors at home and preschool with questionnaires. Measurement of children's EBRBs involved three-day food records, food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), seven-day accelerometer data, and seven-day sedentary behavior diaries. Children's long-term stress was measured by hair cortisol concentration. Parental educational level (PEL) served as an indicator of SES. Children with low PEL had more screen time, more frequent consumption of sugary beverages and lower consumption of vegetables, fruit, and berries (VFB) than those with high PEL. Children with middle PEL had a higher risk of consuming sugary everyday foods than children with high PEL. No PEL differences were found in children's physical activity, sedentary time, or long-term stress. The DAGIS intervention, aiming to diminish SES differences in preschool children's EBRBs, needs to have a special focus on screen time and consumption of sugary foods and beverages, and VFB.
The growing role of Internet in all aspects of everyday life has led to speculations over the impacts beyond the traditional questions of access or sociability. This in mind, the main focus in this article was to examine how Finns, for majority of whom Internet use has become commonplace activity, perceive the impacts of Internet use since first adopting the technology. In this study, we examine how Internet user history and perceived computer skills, along with different sociodemographic factors, appear to reflect on the perceived impacts of Internet adoption in terms of memory and ability to concentrate. According to the results, almost one in five of the respondents reported changes concerning their memory or ability to concentrate, with skilled computer users and nonworkers, in particular, perceiving the change. Factors such as age-related differences and exposure to potential information overload at work were identified to explain the perceived change. Our data were collected in a survey-gathering information on the everyday life and well-being of Finns. The sample consisted of 2000 Finnish speakers aged 15 to 64 years. The response rate was 46 percent (N=908).
The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased three-fold among Finnish adolescents during the past three decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether this secular trend differed between sociodemographic subgroups of adolescents.
Mailed surveys were conducted among nationally representative samples of 12-18 year olds biennially in 1979-2005 (N=3,105-8,390 per year, response rates 88%-66%). Body mass index was calculated from self-reported weight and height, and overweight (including obesity) was defined according to the IOTF reference for children. Associations between sociodemographic factors and secular trend in the prevalence of overweight were tested by logistic regression including interaction terms between survey year and sociodemographic variables.
Throughout the study period a higher prevalence of overweight, as compared with the respective reference groups, was observed among adolescents from rural areas, Western or Eastern Finland; or from lower socioeconomic status families (as measured by father's/guardian's education or occupational status or by mother's education); adolescents reporting lower school achievement, attending vocational school or not going to school at all; adolescents whose fathers were not employed outside home; and among girls living in non-nuclear families or whose mothers were unemployed/laid-off or retired/on long-lasting sick leave. The statistically significant interactions between survey year and sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of overweight were few and inconsistent.
The prevalence of overweight varied across sociodemographic subgroups of adolescents but in general no sociodemographic differences in the trends over time were observed. These results suggest that factors underlying the increasing trend of overweight have affected the entire adolescent population.