This study aimed to investigate whether leaving home to live in lodgings during senior high school can be a risk factor for the development of internalizing problems. Utilizing two large-scale prospective community studies of 2399 and 3906 Norwegian students (age range 15-19 years), respectively, the difference in internalizing symptoms between adolescents living in lodgings and adolescents living with their parents during senior high school was examined. Female students living in lodgings had higher scores on internalizing problems than female students living at home, whereas no differences were found for males. Living in lodgings did not predict later internalizing problems, and prior internalizing problems did not predict moving into lodgings. It is therefore suggested that the negative effect of living in lodgings on high school students' well-being is temporary.
The long-term association between sleep duration and mental health in children is currently unknown.
To investigate the prospective associations between sleep duration and symptoms of emotional and behavioral disorders at ages 6, 8, 10, and 12 years.
This population-based cohort study obtained data from the Trondheim Early Secure Study in Trondheim, Norway. A representative, stratified random sample of children born between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004, were invited to participate. Participants were followed up biennially from age 4 years (2007-2008) to 12 years (2013-2014). Data analysis was conducted from January 2, 2019, to May 28, 2019.
Sleep duration was assessed with 1 week of continuous use of a triaxial accelerometer. Symptoms of emotional (anxiety and depression) and behavioral (oppositional defiant, conduct, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity) disorders were measured by semistructured clinical interviews (using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment and the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment) with parents (at all ages) and children (from age 8 years).
The analytical sample comprised 799 children (mean [SD] age at time point 2, 6.0 [0.2] years; 405 [50.7%] boys; and 771 [96.5%] Norwegian). Shorter sleep duration at age 6 years (ß [unstandardized regression coefficient]?=?-0.44; 95% CI, -0.80 to -0.08; P?=?.02) and 8 years (ß?=?-0.47; 95% CI, -0.83 to -0.11; P?=?.01) forecasted symptoms of emotional disorders 2 years later. Comparatively short sleep duration at age 8 years (ß?=?-0.65; 95% CI,?-1.22 to -0.08; P?=?.03) and 10 years (ß?=?-0.58; 95% CI,?-1.07 to -0.08; P?=?.02) was associated with symptoms of behavioral disorders 2 years later among boys but not among girls at age 8 years (ß =?-0.14; 95% CI,-?0.52 to 0.24; P?=?.48) or 10 years (ß?=?-0.05; 95% CI,?=?-0.49 to 0.40; P?=?.84). These associations were statistically significant among boys compared with girls at age 8 years (??21?=?13.26; P?
Research suggests a role for both fat mass and muscle mass in appetite regulation, but the longitudinal relationships between them have not yet been examined in children. The present study therefore aimed to explore the prospective relationships between fat mass, muscle mass and the appetitive traits food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness in middle childhood.
Food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness were measured using the parent-reported Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in a representative sample of Norwegian 6?year olds, followed up at 8 and 10?years of age (n?=?807). Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance.
Applying a structural equation modeling framework we found that higher fat mass predicted greater increases in food responsiveness over time, whereas greater muscle mass predicted decreases in satiety responsiveness. This pattern was consistent both from ages 6 to 8 and from ages 8 to 10?years.
Our study is the first to reveal that fat mass and muscle mass predict distinct changes in different appetitive traits over time. Replication of findings in non-European populations are needed, as are studies of children in other age groups. Future studies should also aim to reveal the underlying mechanisms.
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A considerable gap exists in regard to longitudinal research on quality of life (QoL) in community populations of children and adolescents. Changes and stability of QoL have been poorly examined, despite the fact that children and adolescents undergo profound developmental changes. The aims of the study were to investigate short-term changes in student QoL with regard to sex and age in a school-based sample.
A representative Norwegian sample of 1,821 school children, aged 8-16 years and their parents were tested at baseline and 6 months later, using the Inventory of Life Quality for Children and Adolescents (ILC) and the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDL). Student response rate at baseline was 71.2% and attrition over the follow-up period was 4.6%, and 1,336 parents (70%) completed the follow-up. Change scores between baseline and follow-up evaluations were analysed by means of ANCOVA in regard to sex and age effects.
Students in the 8th grade reported a decrease in QoL over the six-month follow-up period as compared to those in the 6th grade with regard to Family and School domains and total QoL on the KINDL. For emotional well-being a significant linear decrease in QoL across grades 6th to 10th was observed. However, student ratings on the Friends and Self-esteem domains did not change significantly by age. Girls reported a higher decrease in their QoL across all grades over the follow-up period than did boys in respect of Self-esteem on the KINDL, and an age-related decrease in total QoL between 6th and 8th grade on the ILC. Parent reports of changes in child QoL were nonsignificant on most of the domains.
The observed age and sex-related changes in school children's QoL across the six-month follow-up period should be considered in epidemiological as well as clinical research.
BACKGROUND: The study analyzes changes in types of problems referred to child and adolescent psychiatry in Norway from 1992 to 2001, and investigates if referral practices and media attention account for these changes. METHOD: All referrals to child and adolescent psychiatry in Norway in the period 1992--2001 were analyzed, as well as frequencies of articles in media on psychiatric problems. RESULTS: The shares of referrals for sadness/depression increased from 0.5 % to 15.4 %. Referrals for hyperactivity/attention problems increased from 1.2 % to 13.6 %. The increases could be statistically attributed to decreased use of other referral categories, and/or alternatively to media attention on these and related topics. Convergence between diagnosis and corresponding referral problem increased in the period. CONCLUSIONS: Referrals for sadness/depression and hyperactivity/attention problems increased sharply in Norway during the 1990s. This increase may be attributed to a different understanding of and a sharper look at these problems by referral agencies and by increased media attention.
Previous studies from Nordic countries suggest that parent ratings of children's emotional and behavioural problems using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) are among the lowest in the world. However, there has been no Norwegian population study with acceptable response rates to provide valid Norwegian reference data.
Firstly, to compare CBCL Internalizing, Externalizing, Total Problems and Competence scores of Norwegian children and adolescents with those from 1) previous Norwegian studies, 2) other Nordic countries, and 3) international data. Secondly, to present Norwegian reference data in order to perform these comparisons. Thirdly, to investigate the effects of age, gender, socio-economic and urban/rural status on the CBCL.
A stratified cluster sample of 2582 school children (1302 girls and 1280 boys) was identified from the general Norwegian population and their parents were asked to complete the CBCL.
The response rate was 65.5%. The mean Total Problems score for the whole sample was 14.2 (standard deviation, s = 14.1). Girls were rated as having greater Competence and fewer Total Problems than boys. Younger children had more Total Problems than adolescents. Parents with low education reported more child Total Problems and lower Competence than those with high education. All effect sizes were small, except for the effect of parental education on child Competence, which was moderate.
Total Problems scores were lower than in other societies. The data from this study obtained from one county in central Norway provide an important reference for clinical practice and treatment outcome research.
The term 'stability' has different meanings, and its implications for the etiology, prevention, and treatment of depression vary accordingly. Here, we identify five types of stability in childhood depression, many undetermined due to a lack of research or inconsistent findings.
Children and parents (n = 1,042) drawn from two birth cohorts in Trondheim, Norway, were followed biennially from ages 4-14 years. Symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (only parents) and the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (age 8 onwards).
(a) Stability of form: Most symptoms increased in frequency. The symptoms' importance (according to factor loadings) was stable across childhood but increased from ages 12-14, indicating that MDD became more coherent. (b) Stability at the group level: The number of symptoms of dysthymia increased slightly until age 12, and the number of symptoms of MDD and dysthymia increased sharply between ages 12-14. (c) Stability relative to the group (i.e., 'rank-order') was modest to moderate and increased from ages 12-14. (d) Stability relative to oneself (i.e., intraclass correlations) was stronger than stability relative to the group and increased from age 12-14. (e) Stability of within-person changes: At all ages, decreases or increases in the number of symptoms forecasted similar changes two years later, but more strongly so between ages 12-14.
Across childhood, while most symptoms of MDD and dysthymia become more frequent, they are equally important. The transition to adolescence is a particularly vulnerable period: The depression construct becomes more coherent, stability increases, the level of depression increases, and such an increase predicts further escalation. Even so, intervention at any time during childhood may have lasting effects on reducing child and adolescent depression.
To examine screening efficiency for preschool psychopathology by comparing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire findings against diagnostic information, and to determine the added value of impact scores and teacher information.
Using a 2-phase sampling design, a population-based sample of 845 children 4 years of age was recruited from community health check-ups in Trondheim, Norway, screen score stratified and oversampled for high screening scores. Blinded to screen ratings, DSM-IV diagnoses were assigned using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview, against which the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores were compared through receiver operating characteristic analysis.
Emotional and behavioral disorders were identified through parent ratings with a specificity of 88.8% (range, 87.0%-90.6%) and a sensitivity of 65.1% (range, 51.6-78.6%). The negative predictive value was 97.9% (range, 96.8%-98.9%), whereas the positive predictive value was 24.2% (range, 18.0%-30.3%) at a prevalence of 5.2%. Parental ratings identified more behavioral disorders (79.3%) than emotional disorders (59.2%). Screening for any disorder was somewhat less efficient: specificity, 88.9% (range, 87.0%-90.7%); sensitivity, 54.2% (range, 41.8%-66.6%); negative predictive value, 96.4% (range, 95.0%-97.8%); and positive predictive value, 25.9% (range, 19.6%-32.2%) at a prevalence of 6.7%. The area under the curve (AUC) value was 0.83 (range, 0.76-0.90) for emotional and behavioral disorders and 0.76 (range, 0.68-0.83) for any disorder. The prediction accuracy was not improved by impact scores or teacher information.
The results indicate that preschoolers' emotional and behavioral disorders can be screened with the same efficiency as those of older children and adults. Other disorders were identified to a lesser extent. Further research should explore the potential of preschool screening to improve early detection and subsequent intervention.