Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) has previously been shown to both overestimate and underestimate average fat mass (FM) in humans. Eight-electrode bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has previously been found biased as well as successfully validated. We report cross-sectional accuracy of QMR and eight-electrode BIA evaluated with air displacement plethysmography (ADP) as reference method.
Fat mass and fat free mass (FFM) by QMR and eight-electrode BIA were evaluated against ADP as reference in 38 normal weight and 30 obese women. Total body water estimates by QMR and eight-electrode BIA were compared.
The Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study is a longitudinal study of reproductive health. Here we analyzed body composition of normal-weight and obese Swedish women by three methods during each trimester of pregnancy. Cross-sectional and longitudinal fat mass estimates using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) (Tanita MC-180MA-III) were compared with fat mass determined by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in pregnancy weeks 8-12, 24-26, and 35-37 in normal-weight women (n =?122, BMI?=?22.1?±?1.6 kg/m2) and obese women (n =?29, BMI?=?34.6?±?3.6 kg/m2). ADP results were calculated from pregnancy-adjusted fat-free mass densities. Mean fat mass by QMR and ADP were similar in obese women, although with wide limits of agreement. In normal-weight women, QMR overestimated mean fat mass in all trimesters, with systematic overestimation at low fat mass values in trimesters 1 and 3. In obese women, fat mass by BIA was grossly underestimated and imprecise in all trimesters, especially at higher values in trimester 2. In normal-weight women, fat mass by BIA was moderately lower than by ADP in trimester 1, similar in trimester 2, and moderately higher in trimester 3. QMR and ADP assessed fat mass changes similarly in obese women, whereas BIA overestimated fat mass changes in normal-weight women. Mean fat mass and fat mass changes by QMR and pregnancy-adjusted ADP were similar in pregnant obese women. Mean fat mass by QMR and fat mass changes by BIA were higher than corresponding values determined by pregnancy-adjusted ADP in normal-weight women.
To validate the bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) model against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to develop and compare BIS estimates of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) to other prediction equations, and to report BIS reference values of body composition in a population-based sample of 75-year-old Swedes.
Body composition was measured by BIS in 574 subjects, and by DXA and BIS in a subset of 98 subjects. Data from the latter group was used to develop BIS prediction equations for total body skeletal muscle mass (TBSMM).
Average fat free mass (FFM) measured by DXA and BIS was comparable. FFM(BIS) for women and men was 40.6 kg and 55.8 kg, respectively. Average fat free mass index (FFMI) and body fat index (BFI) for women were 15.6 and 11.0. Average FFMI and BFI for men were 18.3 and 8.6. Existing bioelectrical impedance analysis equations to predict SMM were not valid in this cohort. A TBSMM prediction equation developed from this sample had an R(2)(pred) of 0.91, indicating that the equation would explain 91% of the variability in future observations.
BIS correctly estimated average FFM in healthy elderly Swedes. For prediction of TBSMM, a population specific equation was required.
To describe an intensive nutrition therapy for hospitalized adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) in terms of body weight, body composition, energy balance and food related anxiety.
Twenty-six young females, 16-24years of age, with AN were invited to participate at admission to a specialized eating disorder unit in Göteborg, Sweden. Intensive nutrition therapy comprised 12weeks on a structured meal plan. Six meals were served daily, in combination with high-energy liquid nutritional supplements from start. Energy and nutrient intakes, energy expenditure, body composition and food related anxiety were measured during the study. A 3-month follow-up of body weight and food related anxiety was conducted.
Twenty-one patients participated. The total daily energy intake was, during the first week of treatment, (mean±SD) 3264±196kcal (74kcal/kg), and decreased gradually during treatment to 2622±331kcal (49kcal/kg). Total daily energy expenditure was initially 1568±149kcal and increased gradually to 2034±194kcal. Patients gained on average 9.8±2.1kg and body mass index increased from 15.5±0.9 to 19.0±0.9kg/m(2). Body fat increased from 13±6% to 26±6%. Fat free mass remained unchanged, but skeletal muscle mass increased from 16.7±2.0 to 17.6±2.4kg, p=0.009. Patients' food related anxiety decreased significantly during treatment and was still unchanged 3months later.
The presented intensive nutrition therapy with initially high energy and nutrient intakes produced substantial weight gain, increased fat and muscle mass and decreased food related anxiety in AN patients, without any clinical side effects.
Current evidence suggests a combined treatment of postpartum weight loss of diet and exercise. However, to our knowledge, neither their separate and interactive effects nor long-term outcomes have been evaluated.
We evaluated whether a 12-wk dietary behavior modification (D) treatment to decrease energy intake, physical exercise behavior modification (E) treatment to implement moderate aerobic exercise, or combined dietary and physical exercise behavior modification (DE) treatment compared with control (usual care) (C) reduces body weight in lactating women measured at the end of treatment and at a 1-y follow-up 9 mo after treatment termination.
At 10-14 wk postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy BMI (in kg/m²) of 25-35 were randomly assigned to D, E, DE, or C groups. Measurements were made at baseline, after the intervention, and again at a 1-y follow-up 9 mo later. A 2 × 2 factorial approach was used to analyze main and interaction effects of treatments.
Weight changes after the intervention and 1-y follow-up were -8.3 ± 4.2 and -10.2 ± 5.7 kg, respectively, in the D group; -2.4 ± 3.2 and -2.7 ± 5.9 kg, respectively, in the E group; -6.9 ± 3.0 and -7.3 ± 6.3 kg, respectively, in the DE group; and -0.8 ± 3.0 and -0.9 ± 6.6 kg, respectively, in the C group. The main effects of D treatment, but not of E treatment, on weight were significant at both times (P
The dietary intake in Swedish medical students has been reported for the periods 1987-1993 and 1994-2006.
To analyse dietary intake in medical students between 2007 and 2012, in relation to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, to previous surveys and to a contemporary Swedish population.
Nutrient intake was calculated from 3-day food records conducted by 698 medical students. The differences between surveys were evaluated using a t-test and the changes over time by linear regression.
The energy intake in valid female and male reporters was 8.7 and 11.9 MJ respectively. The intake of protein, fat and alcohol, as proportions of energy (E%) and dietary fibre, was within recommendations. The intake of most micronutrients was above recommendations, except for vitamin D, and in women, iron and folate. In women, E% fat increased between 2007 and 2012, while E% carbohydrate decreased. Compared to the 1994-2006 period, medical students in the present survey consumed less carbohydrates and more fat, more folate and more vitamin E. The students were more compliant with the dietary recommendations than the same age group of the Swedish population.
Energy intake in medical students, and dietary intake with some exceptions, remained stable during 1987-2012, and close to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for most nutrients. Between 2007 and 2012, fat intake increased and carbohydrate intake decreased significantly in women and also tended to do so in men. Similar trends were seen in the Swedish population, possibly indicating the impact of diet trends such as the Low-Carb/High-Fat diet.
Dietary intake of naturally occurring plant sterols is inversely related to serum cholesterol concentrations. Elevated serum cholesterol increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but it is unknown if this can be reduced by dietary intake of naturally occurring plant sterols. Our aim was to investigate if a high intake of naturally occurring plant sterols is related to a lower risk of contracting a first MI. The analysis included 1005 prospective cases (219 women, 786 men) and 3148 matched referents (723 women, 2425 men), aged 29-73 y at baseline, from the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was completed at baseline. Absolute plant sterol intake was inversely related to the risk of a first MI in men (OR highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.85; P-trend = 0.006) but not in women. After adjustment for confounders, the estimated risk was somewhat attenuated (OR highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.92; P-trend = 0.067), suggesting that increasing sterol intake from 150 to 340 mg/d reduces the risk of a first MI by 29%. Energy-adjusted plant sterol intake was not related to the risk of a first MI in either men or women. In conclusion, the findings of this observational study show that a high absolute intake of naturally occurring plant sterols is significantly related to a lower risk of a first MI in men in northern Sweden, whereas no significant relation was seen for energy-adjusted plant sterol intake. In women, no significant associations were found. The results from this study show that intake of plant sterols may be important in prevention of MI.
A randomized controlled cross-over trial investigating the effect of anti-inflammatory diet on disease activity and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis: the Anti-inflammatory Diet In Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADIRA) study protocol.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects 0.5-1.0% of the population, and where many patients in spite of modern pharmacological treatment fail to reach remission. This affects physical as well as mental wellbeing and leads to severely reduced quality of life and reduced work capacity, thus yielding high individual as well as societal costs. As a complement to modern pharmacological treatment, lifestyle intervention should be evaluated as a treatment option. Scientific evidence exists for anti-inflammatory effects by single foods on RA, but no study exists where these foods have been combined to obtain maximum effect and thus offer a substantial improvement in patient life quality. The main goal of the randomized cross-over trial ADIRA (Anti-inflammatory Diet In Rheumatoid Arthritis) is to test the hypothesis that an anti-inflammatory diet intervention, compared to a regular diet, will decrease disease activity and improve quality of life in patients with stable established RA.
In total, 50 RA patients with moderate disease activity are randomized to receive initially either a portfolio diet based on several food items with suggested anti-inflammatory effects or a control diet during 2?×?10 weeks with 3 months wash-out between diets. Food bags are delivered weekly by a home food delivery chain and referred to as the fiber bag and the protein bag, respectively, to partially blind participants. Both groups continue with regular pharmacological treatment. Known food biomarkers will be analyzed to measure intervention compliance. Impact on disease severity (measured by DAS28, a composite score which predicts disability and progression of RA), risk markers for cardiovascular disease and quality of life are evaluated after each diet regimen. Metabolomics will be used to evaluate the potential to predict responders to dietary treatment. A health economic evaluation is also included.
The nutritional status of patients with RA often is poor and many ask their physician for diet advice. No evidence-based dietary guidelines for patients with RA exist because of the paucity of well-conducted sufficiently large diet intervention trials. ADIRA is an efficacy study and will provide evidence as to whether dietary treatment of RA can reduce disease activity and improve quality of life as well as reduce individual and societal costs.