Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20?µg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage and vitamin D status in a multiple linear regression model (P
OBJECTIVE: To measure body composition and analyse the relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability in healthy, old subjects, and to relate the results to an optimal BMI level for the elderly. SETTING: Subjects aged 80 years living at home from the 1914-population in Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self reported and functional ability was assessed by the Physical Performance Test (PPT) and self reported mobility including information about tiredness and help. RESULTS: After dividing BMI into three groups: BMI 29 no relationship was seen between a BMI interval of 24-29 kg/m2, and physical activity and functional ability. BMI was related to body fat mass, and FFM was related to muscle strength. Muscle strength was related to mobility and PPT. Mobility and PPT were mutually related and were related to physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our cross sectional study did not support newly proposed guidelines for the elderly of an optimal BMI interval of 24-29 kg/m2. We found relations between body composition, muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability.
OBJECTIVE: The pattern of thyroid dysfunction seems to depend on the iodine status of the population. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction could be a parameter to consider when evaluating iodine deficiency disorders in a population. DESIGN: Comparative cross-sectional investigation in two regions in Denmark with marginally different iodine excretion. METHODS: A random selection of 4649 participants from the Civil Registration System in Denmark in age groups between 18 and 65 years were examined. Thyroid dysfunction was evaluated from blood samples and questionnaires, and compared with results from ultrasonography. RESULTS: Median iodine excretion was 53 microg/l in Aalborg and 68 microg/l in Copenhagen. Previously diagnosed thyroid dysfunction was found with the same prevalence in the regions. Serum TSH was lower in Aalborg than in Copenhagen (P=0. 003) and declined with age in Aalborg, but not in Copenhagen. Not previously diagnosed hyperthyroidism was found with the same overall prevalence in the regions, but in age >40 years hyperthyroidism was more prevalent in Aalborg (1.3 vs 0.5%, P=0.017). Not previously diagnosed hypothyroidism was found more frequently in Aalborg (0.6 vs 0.2%, P=0.03). Hyperthyroidism was more often associated with macronodular thyroid structure at ultrasound in Aalborg and hypothyroidism was more often associated with patchy thyroid structure in Copenhagen. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences in thyroid dysfunction were found between the regions with a minor difference in iodine excretion. The findings are in agreement with a higher prevalence of thyroid autonomy among the elderly in the most iodine-deficient region.
Our study aimed at developing a computer-based simulation model for the consultation process in general practice. The model was developed in the computer language COM-CATS and makes use of an IBM-compatible personal computer with an automated diasprojector attached. A feasibility study comprised 122 general practitioners (108 male and 14 female), participating in the 6th Nordic Congress of General Practice (Aarhus, Denmark, 1989). All participants were given a short introduction to the patient and his symptoms, but all further information was optimal and selected by the doctor. There was a large variation in practice patterns of the general practitioners. Their actions were, however, performed selectively, i.e. a few tests were requested by most doctors and none of the doctors performed large numbers of tests. The great advantage of the computer-model in research into clinical decision-making is that it allows for a standardization of the clinical situation, gives the doctor an opportunity to select between optional information, and permits an automatic gathering of huge amounts of information about the decision-making process.
Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive and vitamin D deficiency is thought to be common in Denmark due to inadequate dietary intakes and the fact that in Denmark (latitude 56°N) vitamin D is only synthesized in the skin after exposure to solar radiation during summertime (April-September). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status of a general adult population in Denmark and, in addition, associations between vitamin D status and distinct lifestyle factors were studied.
A random sample of 6784 persons from a general population aged 30-60 years participated in a health examination in 1999-2001. Serum samples from all participants were stored and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured by HPLC in 2009. The method was compared to another HPLC method. Information on dietary intake of vitamin D and other lifestyle factors were obtained by questionnaires. A total of 6146 persons defined as ethnic Danes and with successful measurements of 25(OH)D were included in the analyses.
The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess the dietary intake of iodine. DESIGN: The iodine intake determined by the FFQ was compared with 4-day dietary records and with iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples in a subgroup of participants in a cross-sectional study of iodine intake and thyroid diseases in Denmark. Furthermore, the intake of fish determined from the FFQ was compared with the intake of fish from a simple record kept for 3 months. SUBJECTS: Women aged 25-30 y and 60-65 y. RESULTS: Median iodine intake was similar when determined from the FFQ and from dietary records and the correlation between these measures was 0.52 (P
A working group was established to evaluate the need for an increased folate intake in Danish women to decrease the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). NTD are birth defects which include anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida. In Denmark the incidence is about 1.4 per 1,000 pregnancies. Folate is a B-vitamin found in most food groups. In case-control studies and randomised studies, a protective effect of folic acid supplements on NTDs has been found. The studies show that a periconceptional folic acid supplement of 360 micrograms to 4 mg daily decreases the recurrence rate of NTDs. Likewise, in the few studies which calculate folate intake from the diet, a lower risk of NTD with higher intake of folate from the diet has been found. The folate intake can be increased by the diet, by folic acid supplements or by fortification of food with folic acid. It is concluded that the incidence of NTDs in Denmark will decrease if the folate intake in fertile women increases. All women planning pregnancy should receive dietary counselling. Women who do not eat according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, and women with an increased risk due to diseases are recommended a supplement of 400 micrograms folic acid daily from a multivitamin/folic acid tablet. Women who have had a child with NTD and women who themselves have NTDs are recommended a supplement of 5 mg folic acid daily. Dietary changes and supplements should be initiated when pregnancy is planned.
OBJECTIVE: The association between severe iodine deficiency and endemic goitre is well established, but little information is available on the relation between milder degrees of iodine deficiency and goitre prevalence. SUBJECTS: In a comparative epidemiological study performed in two regions in Denmark, we examined 4649 subjects from the general population, women aged 18-65 years and men aged 60-65 years. METHODS: Ultrasonography and palpation of the thyroid was performed in all participants. Iodine excretion was measured in casual urine samples. Previous thyroid disease was detected by questionnaires, personal interviews and tracing of records. RESULTS: The median iodine excretion was 61 microg/l (mild iodine deficiency (ID)) and 45 microg/l (moderate ID) in the two regions. Median thyroid volume at ultrasonography was 11. 9 ml (mild ID) and 13.6 ml (moderate ID), P