A questionnaire study comprising 854 cancer patients in the UmeÃ¥ health care region and covering the 10-year period, 1987-96, showed only a few cancer patients to use alternative medicine treatment for their disease. As compared with 19.4 per cent of 144 residents selected from the population register who answered the questionnaire in 1987, 16.8 per cent of the cancer patients reported using alternative treatments in 1987, 14.4 per cent in 1990, and 16.4 per cent in 1996. The commonest forms of alternative medicine used were chiropractic and acupuncture, and the majority of treatments were for pain in the muscles or musculoskeletal system.
A case-referent study on soft tissue sarcomas (STS) was conducted, to see if previous findings regarding an association between exposure to phenoxyacetic acids or chlorophenols and this tumor type could be reproduced. Fifty-five male STS patients were thereby compared with 220 living and 110 dead population-based referents. Furthermore, another referent group consisting of 190 patients with another type of malignant disease was used in order to evaluate any influence of recall bias on the results. To obtain information about exposure to the studied chemicals, as well as about any other exposures that might be of interest, questionnaires were used, and if necessary these were completed over the phone by an interviewer who had no information regarding case-referent status. All analysis and interpretation of exposure data were done in a blinded manner. Exposure to phenoxyacetic acids gave a roughly three-fold increased risk for STS, thereby confirming previous findings, whereas exposure to chlorophenols was not associated with STS in this study.
The effect of potential risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 59 cases and 354 referents, all of whom were alive. Information on exposure was obtained through a questionnaire mailed to the subjects. The possible effect of background radiation was evaluated by means of a gamma radiation index, which accounted for the differences between cases and referents in this respect, i.e., in time spent in concrete buildings both at home and at work places. In the 20-54 yr old age group, there was an association between leukemia morbidity and index of background radiation. X-ray treatment and electrical work were also associated with increased rate ratios. With regard to solvents, only styrene appeared as a risk factor, but the number of exposed subjects was small. Other exposures were less clearly associated with increased risks.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate childhood cancer in relation to duration of breast-feeding. SETTING: Sweden. Records from Child Healthcare Centres were scrutinised regarding information on breast-feeding and other health-related items. SUBJECTS: All children aged 0-14 y with a malignant disease (benign brain tumours included) during the time period 1988-91 (n = 962) were identified from the Swedish Cancer Register. An equal number of controls matched for sex and age were selected from the Swedish Birth Register. RESULTS: Information was obtained for 835 cases and 860 controls. Overall, duration of breast-feeding did not influence the risk for a malignant disease in this age group. However, breast-feeding > or = 1 month increased the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) yielding an odds ratio (OR) 5.5 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-25. Breast-feeding 1 - 6 months gave OR 7.0, CI 1.3-37 with a significant trend (P = 0.04). Adjustment for maternal and birth-related co-variates gave similar results. For other malignancies no significant changes of the risk were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, no association between duration of breast-feeding and childhood malignancies was found except for a significantly increased risk for NHL, but this was based on low numbers of cases and needs to be confirmed in other investigations.
We have previously reported increased risk for cancer in 15508 alcoholic women registered in the Swedish Temperance Boards compared with individually matched controls. Age at first registration was found for 14818 of these women. The women were divided into early and late alcoholic onset groups. Age 45 was used as an approximation for reproductive senescence. For subjects
BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has increased in most Western countries during the last few decades. Immunodefective conditions are established risk factors. In 1981, the authors reported an increased risk for NHL following exposure to certain pesticides. The current study was designed to further elucidate the importance of phenoxyacetic acids and other pesticides in the etiology of NHL. METHODS: A population-based case-control study in northern and middle Sweden encompassing 442 cases and twice as many controls was performed. Exposure data were ascertained by comprehensive questionnaires, and the questionnaires were supplemented by telephone interviews. In total, 404 cases and 741 controls answered the questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with the SAS statistical data program. RESULTS: Increased risk for NHL was found for subjects exposed to herbicides (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.5) and fungicides (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1-13.0). Among herbicides, the phenoxyacetic acids dominated (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.9-2.4); and, when subclassified, one of these, 4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), turned out to be significantly associated with NHL (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.0-6.9). For several categories of herbicides, it was noted that only exposure during the most recent decades before diagnosis of NHL was associated with an increased risk of NHL. Exposure to impregnating agents and insecticides was, at most, only weakly related to NHL. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to herbicides in total, including phenoxyacetic acids, during the decades before NHL diagnosis resulted in increased risk for NHL. Thus, the risk following exposure was related to the latency period. Fungicides also increased the risk for NHL when combined, but this group consisted of several different agents, and few subjects were exposed to each type of fungicide.
Comment In: Cancer. 1999 Aug 15;86(4):729-3110441062
PURPOSE: To investigate the use of cellular and cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed on 649 patients aged 20-80 years of both sexes with malignant brain tumour diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 30 June 2000. All patients were alive during the time of the study and had histopathology verified brain tumours. One matched control to each case was selected from the Swedish Population Register. The study area was the Uppsala-Orebro, Stockholm, Linköping and Göteborg medical regions of Sweden. RESULTS: Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire answered by 588 (91%) cases and 581 (90%) controls. Phone usage was defined as 'ever use' and usage starting within 1 year before diagnosis was disregarded. Overall, no significantly increased risks were found: analogue cellular phones yielded an odds ratio (OR)=1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.82-1.57, digital cellular phones OR=1.13, CI=0.86-1.48, and cordless phones OR=1.13, CI=0.85-1.50. For ipsilateral (same side) radiofrequency exposure, analogue mobile phones gave OR=1.85, CI=1.16-2.96, for all malignant brain tumours. For astrocytoma, this risk was OR=1.95, CI=1.12-3.39. For all malignant brain tumours, digital mobile phones yielded OR=1.59, CI=1.05-2.41, and cordless phones yielded OR=1.46, CI=0.96-2.23, in the analysis of ipsilateral exposure. CONCLUSION: The ipsilateral use of an analogue cellular phone yielded a significantly increased risk for malignant brain tumours.
In 1977 a number of patients with soft-tissue sarcomas and previous exposure to phenoxyacetic acids were described. Following from these observations a matched case-control study was made. Exposure to chlorophenols was also included in this study. The results showed that exposure to phenoxyacetic acids or chlorophenols gave an approximately 6-fold increase in the risk for this type of tumour. It was not possible to determine, however, whether the carcinogenic effect was exerted by these compounds or by impurities such as chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans that in almost all cases were part of the commercial preparations.
Microwave exposure from the use of cellular telephones has been discussed in recent years as a potential risk factor for brain tumours. We included in a case-control study 1617 patients aged 20-80 years of both sexes with brain tumour diagnosed between 1 January 1997 and 30 June 2000. They were alive at the study time and had histopathologically verified brain tumour. One matched control to each case was selected from the Swedish Population Register. The study area was the Uppsala-Orebro, Stockholm, Linköping and Göteborg medical regions of Sweden. Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire that was answered by 1429 (88%) cases and 1470 (91%) controls. In total, use of analogue cellular telephones gave an increased risk with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.6). With a tumour induction period of >10 years the risk increased further: OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1-2.9). No clear association was found for digital or cordless telephones. With regard to the anatomical area of the tumour and exposure to microwaves, the risk was increased for tumours located in the temporal area on the same side of the brain that was used during phone calls; for analogue cellular telephones the OR was 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.9). Use of a telephone on the opposite side of the brain was not associated with an increased risk for brain tumours. With regard to different tumour types, the highest risk was for acoustic neurinoma (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.8-6.8) among analogue cellular telephone users.