BACKGROUND: One hundred twenty women alcoholics recruited to a treatment program called EWA (Early Treatment for Women With Alcohol Addiction) were studied. The selected women were not previously treated for alcohol abuse. METHODS: The women were followed up by use of a structured personal interview, biomarkers sensitive for alcohol abuse (i.e., glutamyl transpeptidase), and questionnaires, by using defined criteria for abstinence, social drinking, satisfactory drinking outcome, and unsatisfactory drinking outcome. RESULTS: Drinking outcome was good (i.e., total abstinence, social drinking, or satisfactory drinking outcome) for 67% of the women during the total follow-up time, by use of strict criteria for relapse. The results were corroborated by the biomarkers. Similar results were reported from two previously studied groups of women from the same department. However, the frequency of abstinence was higher and social drinking was significantly lower among this sample of women. Daily drinking, the use of sedatives, and a long duration of pretreatment alcohol abuse predicted an unfavorable outcome. However, a long duration of outpatient treatment predicted a good outcome, whereas treatment dropout was related to an unsatisfactory drinking outcome. A majority of the women (96%) rated the treatment experience and the treatment program favorably. The overall good results might reflect the selection of the subjects studied. CONCLUSIONS: Improving treatment program adherence would probably improve outcome for the women with an unsatisfactory drinking outcome.
The aim of this study has been to explore and compare the mortality of 100 female and 100 male alcoholics, admitted to a department of alcoholic diseases in 1963-69. The patients were early cases and mortality was studied during an observation period of 6-12 years. A total of 18 women and 16 men died. As compared with the general population, mortality was 5.6 and 3.0 times higher than expected for the women and men, respectively. Among the women a significant excess mortality was found for accidents, suicides, diseases of the respiratory system, and especially cirrhosis of the liver. Mortality among the men was significantly higher than expected due to suicides, diseases of the circulatory system, neoplasms, chronic alcoholism, and acute alcohol poisoning. The excess mortality from suicides found for both sexes was highest in the female group. Despite the hitherto rather small number of deaths in the two groups, the high frequency of cirrhosis of the liver among the women is striking.
The consumption of alcohol by women in Sweden is strongly increasing, especially in younger individuals. Since the rediscovery of the teratological properties of alcohol most of the studies concerning foetal alcohol damage in man have covered female skid row alcoholics. This investigation describes the medical and social characteristics of a group of women (n = 92) receiving inpatient care for alcoholism compared with an age-matched control group, in relation to obstetrical history. The conditions in the control group were in accord with those of the general population. Social problems and degree of alcoholism were noticeably advanced among the probands. The proband women who gave birth after established regular alcohol consumption were younger, showed more psychiatric complications during the treatment period, had started drinking and developing signs of advanced alcoholism earlier in life compared with probands who gave birth before established regular alcohol consumption. They also exhibited more social disturbances. The social problems caused by the mothers' alcohol abuse are expected to aggravate the biological consequences to their children.
Women with alcohol problems constitute an increasing number of patients in medical service. Do they need special care? How should the treatment program be designed? The specialized female Karolinska Project for Early Treatment of Women with Alcohol Addiction (EWA) unit at the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, was opened in 1981. The aim of the project is to reach women in an early stage of alcohol dependence behavior and to develop treatment programs specific to the needs of females alone. In order to investigate the value of such a specialized female unit a controlled 2-year follow-up study was carried out including 200 women. The probands were treated in the female only EWA-unit, whereas the controls were placed in the care of traditional mixed-sex alcoholism treatment centers. The 2-year follow-up study showed a more successful rehabilitation regarding alcohol consumption and social adjustment for the women treated in the specialized female unit (EWA). Improvement was noted also for the controls but to a lesser extent. Probably one of the most important achievements of a specialized female unit, such as EWA, is to attract women to come for help earlier.
A comprehensive community-based programme for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes was established in 1985 in a small municipality in northern Sweden. A cross-sectional survey to the general public was performed and semi-structured open-ended interviews were taken of actors at different levels. Notes from official records were also included in the study. The aim was to describe and discuss some factors that promote or constrain community participation in health programmes. The results generally confirmed that the right of definition concerning the health programme mainly remained with the health professionals. Community participation was mainly defined by the actors based on the medical and health planning approach and, thereby, as a means to transform health policy plans into reality by transmitting health knowledge and increasing consciousness among the citizens of the need for changing lifestyles. However, participation as a means of identifying problems and demonstrating power relationships and as elements in promoting local democracy was hardly represented among the actors at all. Overall, the CVD health programme was characterized by consensus between the actors. Despite this, debates and arguments about interpretations, social interests, personal conflicts and ideological constraints were observed. However, a majority of the public wanted the CVD preventive programme to continue.
This paper deals with psychiatric comorbidity among 60 women problem drinkers treated in a specialized women-only treatment programme (EWA) at Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The programme attracts women who have not been previously treated for alcohol problems. The methods used were structured interviews (SCID-I and SCID-II) applied at least 10 days after the start of treatment. All but two of the women had a definite alcohol dependence according to the DSM-III-R, and a majority (60%) also fulfilled the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder during their lifetime. However, only 23% had a personality disorder (PD), and all subjects with a PD also had at least one Axis I disorder. The most common disorders were mood disorders (48%) and anxiety disorders (38%). However, alcohol dependence developed without definite pre-existing psychiatric disorders among a substantial proportion of the women (40%). It remains to be seen whether and how psychiatric disturbances among female problem drinkers affect treatment compliance and long-term outcome.
We compared perinatal mortality, preterm birth (35-year-old women. Further, we examined whether older maternal age effects were modified by parity or otherwise affected by chorionicity.
We carried out a population-based retrospective cohort study including all twin births in British Columbia (BC), Canada, from 1999 to 2003. The BC perinatal database registry was used to obtain clinical, behavioral and demographic data. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using generalized estimating equation models.
Overall, twins of older women were more likely to be born preterm (