The account of quantitative and qualitative structure of diets of children of children's houses has revealed infringements in organisation of mode of a meals, and also unbalance of diet on structure of food substances, including on iodine, that can promote development of iodine-dependence diseases.
Oncoepidemic study was undertaken in order to determine the level of oncologic risk. The risk of death from malignant neoplasms in workers engaged in rubber production was higher by 4-4.7 times than in the city population. Maximum risk of death in males was associated with cancer of bladder and kidneys, esophagus, and larynx, in females with cancer of esophagus, larynx, and intestine. Standardized death rates from all malignant neoplasms in the males engaged in rubber production exceeded that of females by 1. 4. Life expectancy of workers of the main industrial shops was lower than in the control group.
Monitoring of changes occurring in the environment and human health is a basic way of solving the problem of the optimal society-biosphere interaction. The initiated ecological and hygienic studies using the space facilities and techniques of remote probing of the Earth's surface create prerequisites for the land and space monitoring of biospheric solution, for the assessment of the anthropoecological situation and for the prediction environment-related diseases in the population.
Mortality due to malignant neoplasms was studied in the Republic of Altai (RA) in 1993-1998. Males and females in RA die from cancer at a younger age than those in other regions of Russia. By the main cancer sites, the mean age of deceased males is 2.3-9.1 years less than that of females. Comparison of mortality rates in Russia and RA revealed increased proportion of cancer of the trachea, bronchus, lung in males and females, as well as greater proportion of gastric cancer in males and of esophageal cancer in females. Maps of the standardized index of cancer mortality was made, which clearly show the distribution of mortality rates by the administrative RA districts. High cancer risk districts were identified due to the ranging the territory by the rates of deaths from all cancer sites, from cancer of the trachea, bronchus, lung, stomach, liver, blood, and lymphatic.
The data of reports by Russian and foreign authors on the biological effect of selenium are summarized. Some investigations have revealed its high toxic and carcinogenic properties in the selenium-rich biogeochemical provinces. Low-selenium diet has a human unfavourable impact. Recent studies have provided evidence for that is severe selenium deficiency in the environmental objects and foodstuffs virtually throughout the former USSR. At present selenium is recognized to be an essential trace element for human health. Selenium preparations in therapeutical doses have high antioxidative and anticarcinogenic activities. The types of medicinal plant materials that has a pronounced capacity to selectively accumulate selenium from the soil have been defined. Moreover, there are medicinal plants which are selenium concentrators that have high biological accumulation coefficients. Experimental and clinical findings indicate that selenium-containing drugs and medicinal plants should be recommended as an compulsory food additive in selenium-deficient areas for treatment and prophylaxis.