The Cockcroft Gault formula is often used to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine results. In Sweden this calculation is not usually done in the laboratory, but locally in the wards. These manual calculations could cause erroneous results. In several studies plasma cystatin C has been shown to be superior to plasma creatinine for estimation of GFR. One limitation of using cystatin C as a GFR marker is that there is no conversion formula transforming cystatin C expressed as mg/L to GFR expressed as mL/min. In this study plasma creatinine and cystatin C were compared with iohexol clearance. A stronger correlation (p
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the NycoCard:::CRP test (Nycomed A/S, Oslo, Norway) in relation to ESR in consecutive patients in general practice. NycoCard:::CRP test was also compared with a reference method for CRP quantitation. DESIGN: C-reactive protein and ESR were simultaneously measured in 607 consecutive patients at four community health centres. SETTING: Four community health centres in southern Sweden. RESULTS: We obtained consistent results in 71% of the cases. In 20% CRP was increased more than ESR, while ESR was increased more than CRP in 9%. CRP was increased in 16% while ESR was below the upper reference limit for age and sex. On the other hand ESR was increased while CRP was below 10 mg/l in five % of the patients. In most of the cases where there was a discrepancy- for example, in infectious diseases-the CRP results were more clear-cut. Using the NycoCard test the CRP concentration can be measured directly in a whole blood sample with the result available within minutes. Comparison of the NycoCard:::CRP test with the reference method for CRP quantitation showed good agreement. CONCLUSION: In clinical situations with suspected inflammatory diseases, the CRP test appears often to yield more useful results than the ESR. The NycoCard:::CRP test is suitable for use in general practice.
Most patients with chest pain are discharged from the emergency department (ED) with the diagnosis "unspecified chest pain." It is unknown if evaluation with a high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) assay affects prognosis in this large population.
The aim was to investigate whether the introduction of an hsTnT assay is associated with reduced incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and cardiovascular (CV) risk profile in patients with chest pain discharged from the ED.
The study included 65,696 patients with "unspecified chest pain" discharged from 16 Swedish hospital EDs between 2006 and 2013 in which an hsTnT assay was introduced as the clinical routine. Patients evaluated with a conventional and an hsTnT assay were compared regarding the occurrence of 30-day MACE and CV risk profile based on information from national registries. Patients directly discharged and those discharged after an initial admission were analyzed separately.
Fewer directly discharged patients experienced a MACE when evaluated with an hsTnT compared with a conventional assay (0.6% vs. 0.9%; odds ratio [OR]: 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57 to 0.83). In contrast, more patients discharged after an initial admission experienced a MACE when evaluated with an hsTnT (7.2% vs. 3.4%; OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.76 to 2.72). Admitted patients had a higher general CV risk profile when evaluated with hsTnT, whereas directly discharged patients had a lower general CV risk profile with the same test.
Patients directly discharged from the ED with unspecified chest pain experienced fewer MACEs and had a better risk profile when evaluated with hsTnT. Our findings suggest that more true at-risk patients were identified and admitted. The implementation of hsTnT assays in Swedish hospitals has improved evaluations in the ED.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen determinations in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of morbidity and mortality. SETTING: Coronary care unit at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. SUBJECTS: A total of 222 patients aged 75 years or below, treated with thrombolysis because of typical symptoms of myocardial infarction and electrocardiogram showing ST-segment elevation or bundle branch block were included in the study. The patients were followed for 24-60 months (mean 40 +/- 16 months). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiovascular death or new myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Concentrations of CRP were significantly higher at 48 h than at 3 months, whilst the levels of fibrinogen were similar. CRP and fibrinogen concentrations measured during the acute phase of myocardial infarction were associated with cardiovascular death or a new myocardial infarction during follow-up in univariate analysis. CRP levels measured 3 months after the acute event were not associated with subsequent events whereas fibrinogen concentrations showed a borderline prognostic significance (P = 0.05). When CRP and fibrinogen were entered into multivariate analysis together with the previously established prognostic factors in the patient group (age, diabetes mellitus and left ventricular function), these markers of inflammation did not add further prognostic information. CONCLUSION: C-reactive protein and fibrinogen do not carry the same independent prognostic information after acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis as in studies previously reported for patients with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction.
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the geographical West-to-East division of coronary heart disease (CHD) by comparing a population from Sweden, that represents a Western country to a population from Estonia, that represents an Eastern country. Estonia has an approximately 2-4-fold higher CHD prevalence for 55-year-old women and men, respectively, than Sweden. DESIGN: Randomized screening of 35- and 55-year-old men and women in Sollentuna county, Sweden and Tartu county, Estonia. Eight hundred subjects, 100 from each cohort, were invited to participate in the study, 272 Swedes and 277 Estonians participated. SETTING: Preventive cardiology, administered by a primary health care centre at the Karolinska Hospital, Sweden and a cardiology centre at Tartu University Hospital, Estonia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The CHD risk factors (smoking, blood pressure, concentrations of lipoproteins, fibrinogen, and glucose) and certain environmental factors and attitudes related to CHD risk by questionnaires (fat-type and alcohol ingestion, self-assessed rating of CHD susceptibility). RESULTS: Of the 55-year-old men, 57% smoked in Estonia and 20% smoked in Sweden. Similar, although less pronounced differences showing higher smoking prevalence, were seen for 35-year-old Estonian men and women, whilst for 55-year-old women, less than 20% smoked in either country. Estonian 55-year-old women had lower HDL cholesterol and higher LDL cholesterol serum concentrations than Swedish 55-year-old women. Estonians reportedly ate food containing more saturated fats than Swedes, as indicated by the scale-score questionnaire. Estonians, relative to Swedes, rated their chance of developing CHD higher, and paradoxically, Estonians did to a much lesser degree believe that life style influences the risk of developing CHD. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated smoking prevalence is a striking difference between the Estonian and Swedish populations likely to explain the much higher CHD prevalence in Estonian men. The lower HDL cholesterol and higher LDL cholesterol in Estonian 55-year-old women may explain the higher CHD prevalence in Estonian women. Furthermore, the SWESTONIA CHD study (i.e. comparison between Sweden and Estonia) shows several environmental differences between the countries populations related to fat content in food, alcohol drinking patterns, and views on CHD risk and the importance of lifestyle intervention, that could contribute to the higher CHD prevalence in Estonia.