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Embodiment: Cultural and gender differences and associations with life satisfaction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature312012
Source
Body Image. 2020 Dec; 35:1-10
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2020
Author
Kristina Holmqvist Gattario
Ann Frisén
Tanya Luanne Teall
Niva Piran
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: kristina.holmqvist@psy.gu.se.
Source
Body Image. 2020 Dec; 35:1-10
Date
Dec-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Image - psychology
Canada
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Culture
Feeding and Eating Disorders - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Personal Satisfaction
Self Concept
Sex Characteristics
Sex Factors
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Although cultural factors have an important impact on individuals' experiences of living in their bodies, to date no studies have examined cross-cultural or gender differences in individuals' experience of embodiment. This study compared Swedish and Canadian women's experience of embodiment (and other body image related constructs), as well as Swedish men and women's experience of embodiment. Associations between embodiment, body esteem, and life satisfaction in men and women were also examined. Participants were 302 Swedish women, 242 Swedish men, and 216 Canadian women. Results showed that Swedish women had overall more positive experience of embodiment, more positive body esteem, lower thin-ideal internalization and lower levels of disordered eating than Canadian women. In comparison to Swedish men, however, Swedish women had more negative experience of embodiment in some ways, but similar experience of embodiment in other ways. Although associations between embodiment, body esteem, and life satisfaction were strong, embodiment was a better predictor of life satisfaction than body esteem for both men and women. Results are interpreted through the lens of the developmental theory of embodiment and consider cultural differences between Sweden and Canada, as well as Swedish society's both progress and problems in promoting gender equity.
PubMed ID
32877841 View in PubMed
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Internalization as a mediator of the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and body image attitudes and behaviors among young men in Sweden, US, UK, and Australia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275812
Source
Body Image. 2015 Sep;15:54-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Debra L Franko
Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz
Rachel F Rodgers
Kristina Holmqvist Gattario
Ann Frisén
Phillippa C Diedrichs
Lina A Ricciardelli
Zali Yager
Linda Smolak
Heather Thompson-Brenner
Rebecca M Shingleton
Source
Body Image. 2015 Sep;15:54-60
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude to Health
Australia
Body Composition
Body Image - psychology
Great Britain
Health Behavior
Humans
Internal-External Control
Male
Muscle strength
Personal Satisfaction
Sweden
United States
Young Adult
Abstract
We examined whether internalization of sociocultural body ideals mediated the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and drive for muscularity, leanness, and thinness in a sample of males from Sweden, US, UK, and Australia. Over six hundred young men [n=142 (Sweden); n=192 (US); n=141 (UK); n=160 (Australia)] completed an online survey that included assessments of masculine role norms, body image, and internalization of sociocultural body ideals. Path analyses confirmed internalization as a mediator between greater conformity to masculine norms and body image measures (drive for thinness, desire for leanness, and desire for muscularity) across the sample. However, significant cross-country differences in the strength of these mediation effects were found. Mediation effects among US, Australian, and Swedish males were comparable, whereas these effects were weaker in the UK sample. Findings confirmed the importance of internalization of sociocultural body ideals in the tested models.
PubMed ID
26160708 View in PubMed
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Performance or appearance? Young female sport participants' body negotiations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288157
Source
Body Image. 2017 Jun;21:81-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Carolina Lunde
Kristina Holmqvist Gattario
Source
Body Image. 2017 Jun;21:81-89
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Athletes - psychology
Body Image - psychology
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Female
Focus Groups
Humans
Physical Appearance, Body
Power (Psychology)
Qualitative Research
Shame
Social Stigma
Sports - psychology
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this qualitative study was to examine young female sport participants' experiences and thoughts in terms of sport, their bodies, and social appearance norms. Six focus groups with female sport participants (N=25) from Sweden were conducted. Participants raised many positive experiences in relation to their sport participation, but they also witnessed a conflict in the intersection between the culture within their sport (emphasizing physical performance) and the culture outside their sport (emphasizing physical appearance). Through thematic analysis, four themes illustrating the balancing act between these two cultures were formed: (a) the performing body versus the objectified body, (b) food as fuel versus source of shame, (c) appreciation of body type diversity versus appearance prejudice, and (d) empowerment and agency versus disempowerment and restraints. The findings of this study indicate that young women who engage in sport have to face complex, ambiguous, and restricting norms and notions.
PubMed ID
28365534 View in PubMed
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Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290876
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2017 Jun; 58(3):238-248
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Johanna Kling
Kristina Holmqvist Gattario
Ann Frisén
Author Affiliation
University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2017 Jun; 58(3):238-248
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Female
Femininity
Humans
Perception
Social Behavior
Social Conformity
Sweden
Women - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.].
PubMed ID
28436998 View in PubMed
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