Skip header and navigation

Refine By

7 records – page 1 of 1.

Chemical and microbial characteristics of municipal drinking water supply systems in the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283404
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jun 13;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-13-2017
Author
Kiley Daley
Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Rob C Jamieson
Jenny L Hayward
Greg S Piorkowski
Wendy Krkosek
Graham A Gagnon
Heather Castleden
Kristen MacNeil
Joanna Poltarowicz
Emmalina Corriveau
Amy Jackson
Justine Lywood
Yannan Huang
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jun 13;
Date
Jun-13-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Drinking water in the vast Arctic Canadian territory of Nunavut is sourced from surface water lakes or rivers and transferred to man-made or natural reservoirs. The raw water is at a minimum treated by chlorination and distributed to customers either by trucks delivering to a water storage tank inside buildings or through a piped distribution system. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and microbial drinking water quality from source to tap in three hamlets (Coral Harbour, Pond Inlet and Pangnirtung-each has a population of 0.2 mg/L free chlorine). Some buildings in the four communities contained manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and/or lead (Pb) concentrations above Health Canada guideline values for the aesthetic (Mn, Cu and Fe) and health (Pb) objectives. Corrosion of components of the drinking water distribution system (household storage tanks, premise plumbing) could be contributing to Pb, Cu and Fe levels, as the source water in three of the four communities had low alkalinity. The results point to the need for robust disinfection, which may include secondary disinfection or point-of-use disinfection, to prevent microbial risks in drinking water tanks in buildings and ultimately at the tap.
PubMed ID
28612312 View in PubMed
Less detail

Chemical and microbial characteristics of municipal drinking water supply systems in the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297661
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32926-32937
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2018
Author
Kiley Daley
Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Rob C Jamieson
Jenny L Hayward
Greg S Piorkowski
Wendy Krkosek
Graham A Gagnon
Heather Castleden
Kristen MacNeil
Joanna Poltarowicz
Emmalina Corriveau
Amy Jackson
Justine Lywood
Yannan Huang
Author Affiliation
Centre for Water Resources Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32926-32937
Date
Nov-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Chlorine - analysis
Disinfection - methods
Drinking Water - analysis - chemistry - microbiology
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification
Family Characteristics
Fresh Water - analysis - chemistry - microbiology
Halogenation
Humans
Nunavut
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Water Microbiology
Water Purification - methods
Water Quality
Water Supply - standards
Abstract
Drinking water in the vast Arctic Canadian territory of Nunavut is sourced from surface water lakes or rivers and transferred to man-made or natural reservoirs. The raw water is at a minimum treated by chlorination and distributed to customers either by trucks delivering to a water storage tank inside buildings or through a piped distribution system. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and microbial drinking water quality from source to tap in three hamlets (Coral Harbour, Pond Inlet and Pangnirtung-each has a population of 0.2 mg/L free chlorine). Some buildings in the four communities contained manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and/or lead (Pb) concentrations above Health Canada guideline values for the aesthetic (Mn, Cu and Fe) and health (Pb) objectives. Corrosion of components of the drinking water distribution system (household storage tanks, premise plumbing) could be contributing to Pb, Cu and Fe levels, as the source water in three of the four communities had low alkalinity. The results point to the need for robust disinfection, which may include secondary disinfection or point-of-use disinfection, to prevent microbial risks in drinking water tanks in buildings and ultimately at the tap.
PubMed ID
28612312 View in PubMed
Less detail

Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261888
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73:1-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Kiley Daley
Heather Castleden
Rob Jamieson
Chris Furgal
Lorna Ell
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73:1-10
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Drinking Water - analysis
Family Characteristics
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Nunavut
Public Health
Qualitative Research
Water Pollution - prevention & control
Water Purification - methods
Water Quality
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent.
Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region.
Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants) and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households.
Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more) with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays.
The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in overcrowded households, however, are accessing water in quantities more typically seen in water insecure developing countries. We recommend several practical interventions and revisions to municipal water supply systems.
Notes
Cites: Science. 2012 Aug 24;337(6097):914-522923564
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:1990323570023
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2159423967417
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:2264624350065
Cites: Can J Gastroenterol. 2008 Mar;22(3):289-9518354758
Cites: Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Jul;94(7):1823-910406242
Cites: Fam Pract. 1996 Dec;13(6):522-59023528
Cites: Scand J Public Health. 2004;32(5):390-515513673
Cites: Can Commun Dis Rep. 2008 May;34(5):1-718802983
Cites: Ecohealth. 2011 Mar;8(1):93-10821785890
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Apr;70(2):141-5321524357
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2010 Jun;100(6):1010-820403886
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2008 Nov;98(11):2072-818382002
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):520-3122152596
PubMed ID
24765615 View in PubMed
Less detail

Screening-level microbial risk assessment of acute gastrointestinal illness attributable to wastewater treatment systems in Nunavut, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298340
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 20; 657:1253-1264
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-20-2019
Author
Kiley Daley
Rob Jamieson
Daniel Rainham
Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Sherilee L Harper
Author Affiliation
Centre for Water Resources Studies, Dalhousie University, 1360 Barrington Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2, Canada. Electronic address: kiley.daley@dal.ca.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 20; 657:1253-1264
Date
Mar-20-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Incidence
Nunavut
Recreation
Risk assessment
Waste Management - methods
Waste Water - microbiology
Water Purification
Wetlands
Abstract
Most arctic communities use primary wastewater treatment systems that are capable of only low levels of pathogen removal. Effluent potentially containing fecally derived microorganisms is released into wetlands and marine waters that may simultaneously serve as recreation or food harvesting locations for local populations. The purpose of this study is to provide the first estimates of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) attributable to wastewater treatment systems in Arctic Canada. A screening-level, point estimate quantitative microbial risk assessment model was developed to evaluate worst-case scenarios across an array of exposure pathways in five case study locations. A high annual AGI incidence rate of 5.0 cases per person is estimated in Pangnirtung, where a mechanical treatment plant discharges directly to marine waters, with all cases occurring during low tide conditions. The probability of AGI per person per single exposure during this period ranges between 1.0?×?10-1 (shore recreation) and 6.0?×?10-1 (shellfish consumption). A moderate incidence rate of 1.2 episodes of AGI per person is estimated in Naujaat, where a treatment system consisting of a pond and tundra wetland is used, with the majority of cases occurring during spring. The pathway with the highest individual probability of AGI per single exposure event is wetland travel at 6.0?×?10-1. All other risk probabilities per single exposure are
PubMed ID
30677892 View in PubMed
Less detail

Wastewater treatment and public health in Nunavut: a microbial risk assessment framework for the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280323
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Feb 21;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-21-2017
Author
Kiley Daley
Rob Jamieson
Daniel Rainham
Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Feb 21;
Date
Feb-21-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Wastewater management in Canadian Arctic communities is influenced by several geographical factors including climate, remoteness, population size, and local food-harvesting practices. Most communities use trucked collection services and basic treatment systems, which are capable of only low-level pathogen removal. These systems are typically reliant solely on natural environmental processes for treatment and make use of existing lagoons, wetlands, and bays. They are operated in a manner such that partially treated wastewater still containing potentially hazardous microorganisms is released into the terrestrial and aquatic environment at random times. Northern communities rely heavily on their local surroundings as a source of food, drinking water, and recreation, thus creating the possibility of human exposure to wastewater effluent. Human exposure to microbial hazards present in municipal wastewater can lead to acute gastrointestinal illness or more severe disease. Although estimating the actual disease burdens associated with wastewater exposures in Arctic communities is challenging, waterborne- and sanitation-related illness is believed to be comparatively higher than in other parts of Canada. This review offers a conceptual framework and evaluation of current knowledge to enable the first microbial risk assessment of exposure scenarios associated with food-harvesting and recreational activities in Arctic communities, where simplified wastewater systems are being operated.
PubMed ID
28224339 View in PubMed
Less detail

Wastewater treatment and public health in Nunavut: a microbial risk assessment framework for the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297768
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32860-32872
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Nov-2018
Author
Kiley Daley
Rob Jamieson
Daniel Rainham
Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Water Resources Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. kiley.daley@dal.ca.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32860-32872
Date
Nov-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Bays
Drinking Water - microbiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Gastrointestinal Diseases - etiology
Humans
Inuits
Nunavut
Public Health
Risk Assessment - methods
Sanitation
Waste Disposal, Fluid - methods
Waste Water - microbiology
Waterborne Diseases - etiology
Wetlands
Abstract
Wastewater management in Canadian Arctic communities is influenced by several geographical factors including climate, remoteness, population size, and local food-harvesting practices. Most communities use trucked collection services and basic treatment systems, which are capable of only low-level pathogen removal. These systems are typically reliant solely on natural environmental processes for treatment and make use of existing lagoons, wetlands, and bays. They are operated in a manner such that partially treated wastewater still containing potentially hazardous microorganisms is released into the terrestrial and aquatic environment at random times. Northern communities rely heavily on their local surroundings as a source of food, drinking water, and recreation, thus creating the possibility of human exposure to wastewater effluent. Human exposure to microbial hazards present in municipal wastewater can lead to acute gastrointestinal illness or more severe disease. Although estimating the actual disease burdens associated with wastewater exposures in Arctic communities is challenging, waterborne- and sanitation-related illness is believed to be comparatively higher than in other parts of Canada. This review offers a conceptual framework and evaluation of current knowledge to enable the first microbial risk assessment of exposure scenarios associated with food-harvesting and recreational activities in Arctic communities, where simplified wastewater systems are being operated.
PubMed ID
28224339 View in PubMed
Less detail

Water systems, sanitation, and public health risks in remote communities: Inuit resident perspectives from the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262601
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2015 Apr 22;135:124-132
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-22-2015
Author
Kiley Daley
Heather Castleden
Rob Jamieson
Chris Furgal
Lorna Ell
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2015 Apr 22;135:124-132
Date
Apr-22-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Safe drinking water and wastewater sanitation are universally recognized as critical components of public health. It is well documented that a lack of access to these basic services results in millions of preventable deaths each year among vulnerable populations. Water and wastewater technologies and management practices are frequently tailored to local environmental conditions. Also important, but often overlooked in water management planning, are the social, cultural and economic contexts in which services are provided. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify and understand residents' perceptions of the functionality of current water and wastewater sanitation systems in one vulnerable context, that of a remote Arctic Aboriginal community (Coral Harbour, Nunavut), and to identify potential future water related health risks. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 Inuit residents and 9 key informants in 2011 and 2012. Findings indicate that the population's rapid transition from a semi-nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle to permanent settlements with municipally provided utilities is influencing present-day water usage patterns, public health perceptions, and the level of priority decision-makers place on water and wastewater management issues. Simultaneously environmental, social and cultural conditions conducive to increased human exposure to waterborne health risks were also found to exist and may be increasing in the settlements. While water and wastewater system design decisions are often based on best practices proven suitable in similar environmental conditions, this study reinforces the argument for inclusion of social, cultural, and economic variables in such decisions, particularly in remote and economically challenged contexts in Canada or elsewhere around the world. The results also indicate that the addition of qualitative data about water and wastewater systems users' behaviours to technical knowledge of systems and operations can enhance the understanding of human-water interactions and be valuable in risk assessments and intervention development.
PubMed ID
25965893 View in PubMed
Less detail

7 records – page 1 of 1.