In this grounded theory study, the authors interviewed caregivers and patients in end-of-life cancer care and found Balancing to be a fundamental process explaining the problem-solving strategies of most participants and offering a comprehensive perspective on both health care in general and end-of-life cancer care in particular. Balancing stages were Weighing--sensing needs and wishes signaled by patients, gauging them against caregiver resources in diagnosing and care planning; Shifting--breaking bad news, changing care places, and treatments; and Compensating--controlling symptoms, educating and team-working, prioritizing and "stretching" time, innovating care methods, improvising, and maintaining the homeostasis of hope. The Balancing outcome is characterized by Compromising, or "Walking a fine line," at best an optimized situation, at worst a deceit.
This qualitative study explored the day-to-day life of people aged 50+ diagnosed with ADHD. A phenomenological-hermeneutical method was chosen for the analysis. Two themes including sub-themes were revealed. The first theme, Being different and trying to handle my inner self, concerned emotional self-regulation, emotional resilience, social skills, and personal resource management. The second theme, Trying to adapt to fit in with people around me, concerned relationships, work, and personal finances. The comprehensive understanding was interpreted as Being different but striving to seem normal.
Women migrating to high-income countries may have increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes as compared with native-born women. However, little is known whether migrant women are more likely to have unhealthy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG), which is of importance considering the well-established links between unhealthy BMI and GWG with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hence, the aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and estimate odds ratios (ORs) of underweight and obesity in the first trimester as well as inadequate and excessive GWG across birth regions in migrant (first-generation) and Swedish-born women in a population-based sample of pregnant women in Sweden.
This population-based study included 535 609 pregnancies from the Swedish Pregnancy Register between the years 2010-2018. This register has a coverage of approximately 90% and includes data on body weight, height, birth country and educational attainment. BMI in the first trimester of pregnancy was classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity whereas GWG was classified as inadequate, adequate and excessive according to the recommendations from the National Academy of Medicine, USA. BMI and GWG were examined according to 7 birth regions and the 100 individual birth countries. Adjusted ORs of underweight, obesity as well as inadequate or excessive GWG by birth regions were estimated using multinomial logistic regression.
There were large disparities in unhealthy BMI and GWG across birth regions. For instance, women born in North Africa and Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa had 1.40 (95% CI 1.35-1.44) and 2.13 (95% CI 2.03-2.23) higher odds of obesity compared with women born in Sweden. However, women born in Sub-Saharan Africa had also considerably higher odds of underweight (OR, 2.93 [95% CI 2.70-3.18]) and inadequate GWG (OR, 1.97 [95% CI 1.87-2.07]). The limitations of the study include the lack of a validated measure of acculturation and that the study only had data on first-generation migration.
The large differences across the 7 regions and 100 countries highlights the importance of considering birth region and country-specific risks of unhealthy BMI and GWG in first-generation migrant women. Furthermore, inadequate GWG was common among pregnant first-generation migrant women, especially in women born in Sub-Saharan Africa, which demonstrates the need to promote adequate GWG, not only the avoidance of excessive GWG. Thus, our findings also indicate that additional support and interventions may be needed for first-generation migrant women from certain birth regions and countries in order to tackle the observed disparities in unhealthy BMI and GWG. Although further studies are needed, our results are useful for identifying groups of women at increased risk of unhealthy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy.
The optimal criteria to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remain contested. The Swedish National Board of Health introduced the 2013 WHO criteria in 2015 as a recommendation for initiation of treatment for hyperglycaemia during pregnancy. With variation in GDM screening and diagnostic practice across the country, it was agreed that the shift to new guidelines should be in a scientific and structured way. The aim of the Changing Diagnostic Criteria for Gestational Diabetes (CDC4G) in Sweden ( www.cdc4g.se/en ) is to evaluate the clinical and health economic impacts of changing diagnostic criteria for GDM in Sweden and to create a prospective cohort to compare the many long-term outcomes in mother and baby under the old and new diagnostic approaches.
This is a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial, comparing pregnancy outcomes before and after the switch in GDM criteria across 11 centres in a randomised manner. The trial includes all pregnant women screened for GDM across the participating centres during January-December 2018, approximately two thirds of all pregnancies in Sweden in a year. Women with pre-existing diabetes will be excluded. Data will be collected through the national Swedish Pregnancy register and for follow up studies other health registers will be included.
The stepped wedge RCT was chosen to be the best study design for evaluating the shift from old to new diagnostic criteria of GDM in Sweden. The national quality registers provide data on the whole pregnant population and gives a possibility for follow up studies of both mother and child. The health economic analysis from the study will give a solid evidence base for future changes in order to improve immediate pregnancy, as well as long term, outcomes for mother and child.
CDC4G is listed on the ISRCTN registry with study ID ISRCTN41918550 (15/12/2017).
National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study was to elucidate experiences and views of leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in nulliparous women who were physically active prior to their pregnancy.
A qualitative study was conducted by means of personal interviews. Nineteen women, all with a moderate pre-pregnancy level of physical activity but with different levels of physical activity during pregnancy, participated in the study. Content analysis was applied.
In the analyses of experiences and views of physical activities during pregnancy, four categories and nine sub-categories were developed: Physical activity as a lifestyle (Habit and Desire to continue), Body awareness (Pregnancy-related discomfort, Having a complicated pregnancy and A growing body), Carefulness (Feelings of worry and Balancing worry and sense of security) and Sense of benefit (Feelings of happiness and Physical well-being).
As other studies have also shown, women find that the discomfort and complications associated with pregnancy, the growing body, and a sense of insecurity with physical activity are barriers to maintaining former levels of physical activity. This study adds a new perspective by describing women's perceptions of these barriers and of overcoming them--thus, when pregnant, the majority of the women do not cease to be physically active but continue to be so. Barriers are overcome by applying one's own experience, looking to role models, mirroring the activities of other pregnant women and following the advice of experts (midwives/physiotherapists). Women then continue to be physically active during pregnancy, most often to a lesser extent or in alternative activities, and derive considerable enjoyment and physical well-being from this.
Cites: Epidemiology. 2002 Nov;13(6):653-912410006
Cites: Health Educ Res. 2010 Apr;25(2):282-9319039099
Cites: Can J Appl Physiol. 2003 Aug;28(4):642-5312904639
OBJECTIVE: To study factors of importance for participation in parental education within routine child health care. DESIGN: All parents of children born during 1 year were invited by the district nurse to participate in parental education; their participation during the infant year was registered. SETTING: Catchment area of two health centres in Växjö, Sweden. SUBJECTS: 221 infants and their parents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of educational sessions for mothers and fathers. RESULTS: 63% of mothers and 20% of fathers attended at least one session. These mothers attended a mean of 5.7 (SD 2.2) sessions and these fathers a mean of 2.8 (SD 2.3) sessions. Logistic regression analyses showed that the only variable of significance for participation was being a first-time parent (odds ratio 3.9 for the mothers and 3.7 for the fathers). Odds ratios above 2.0 (non-significant) were found for married mothers and Swedish mothers, as well as for Swedish fathers. CONCLUSION: It is still a considerable problem to get certain groups involved in routine parental education in Swedish child healthcare programmes.
The aim was to investigate maternal background factors' significance in relation to risk of elective and emergency caesarean sections (CS) in Sweden.
Population-based, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The Swedish Maternal Health Care Register (MHCR) is a national quality register that collects data on pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period. All women registered in MHCR 2011 to 2012 were included in the study sample (N?=?178,716).
The risk of elective and emergency caesarean section in relation to age, parity, education, country of origin, weight in early pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy was calculated in logistic regression models.
Multiparous women demonstrated a doubled risk of elective CS compared to primiparous women, but their risk for emergency CS was halved. Overweight and obesity at enrolment in antenatal care increased the risk for emergency CS, irrespective of parity. Weight gain above recommended international levels (Institute of Medicine, IOM) during pregnancy increased the risk for emergency CS for women with normal weight, overweight or obesity.
There is a need of national guidelines on recommended weight gain during pregnancy in Sweden. We suggest that the usefulness of the IOM guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy should be evaluated in the Swedish context.
The Swedish Maternal Health Care Register (MHCR) is a national quality register that has been collecting pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum data since 1999. A substantial revision of the MHCR resulted in a Web-based version of the register in 2010. Although MHCR provides data for health care services and research, the validity of the MHCR data has not been evaluated. This study investigated degree of coverage and internal validity of specific variables in the MHCR and identified possible systematic errors.
This cross-sectional observational study compared pregnancy and delivery data in medical records with corresponding data in the MHCR. The medical record was considered the gold standard. The medical records from nine Swedish hospitals were selected for data extraction. This study compared data from 878 women registered in both medical records and in the MHCR. To evaluate the quality of the initial data extraction, a second data extraction of 150 medical records was performed. Statistical analyses were performed for degree of coverage, agreement and correlation of data, and sensitivity and specificity.
Degree of coverage of specified variables in the MHCR varied from 90.0% to 100%. Identical information in both medical records and the MHCR ranged from 71.4% to 99.7%. For more than half of the investigated variables, 95% or more of the information was identical. Sensitivity and specificity were analysed for binary variables. Probable systematic errors were identified for two variables.
When comparing data from medical records and data registered in the MHCR, most variables in the MHCR demonstrated good to very good degree of coverage, agreement, and internal validity. Hence, data from the MHCR may be regarded as reliable for research as well as for evaluating, planning, and decision-making with respect to Swedish maternal health care services.
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Aug;30(4):853-6211511616
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Nov 15;154(10):889-9011700241
The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate a 1-year learner-centred educational project in end-of-life care for home care staff in a rural district of Sweden. Another rural district in the same region served as a control area. A 20-item questionnaire measuring attitudes towards end-of-life care was designed, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale was used to measure mental well being. Increased agreement to 18 of 20 attitude statements was seen in the education group, while 2 of 20 items showed a decreased agreement in the control group. Test-retest reliability of the 20-item questionnaire was good (r=0.92). The total HAD score decreased from 8.3 pretest to 5.3 post-test in the education group (95% CI = 2.1 -3.7; P
Caesarean section (CS) has short and long term adverse health consequences, and should therefore only be undertaken when necessary. Risk factors such as maternal age, maternal body mass index (BMI) and fetal weight have been extensively investigated in relation to CS, but the significance of maternal height has been less explored in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the significance of maternal height on risk of CS in a representative, population-based sample from Sweden, also taking into account confounders. Data on singleton births in the Swedish Pregnancy Register 2011 to 2016 were collected, including women with heights of 140 cm and above, constituting a sample of 581,844 women. Data were analysed with epidemiological and biostatistical methods. Mean height was 166.1 cm. Women born outside Sweden were significantly shorter than women born in Sweden (162.8 cm vs. 167.1 cm, p