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A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107628
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Sheilagh Hodgins
Sara Lövenhag
Mattias Rehn
Kent W Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Maria-Ungdom Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Parents
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
PubMed ID
23989597 View in PubMed
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Adolescent girls and criminal activity: role of MAOA-LPR genotype and psychosocial factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167096
Source
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Mar 5;144B(2):159-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-5-2007
Author
Rickard L Sjöberg
Kent W Nilsson
Hanna-Linn Wargelius
Jerzy Leppert
Leif Lindström
Lars Oreland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Central Hospital Västerås, Västerås, Sweden. rickard.sjoberg@ltv.se
Source
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Mar 5;144B(2):159-64
Date
Mar-5-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antisocial Personality Disorder - enzymology - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Genotype
Housing
Humans
Monoamine Oxidase - genetics
Promoter Regions, Genetic - genetics
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sex Offenses
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Recent findings among boys show that interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter region (MAOA-LPR) and psychosocial factors predict criminal activity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this finding could be extended to adolescent girls. One hundred nineteen female adolescents were recruited among respondents to a cross-sectional study of the total population of 16- and 19-year old girls. These girls constituted a randomly selected sub-sample from groups representing different degrees of risk behavior. The subjects filled in a questionnaire and were interviewed and genotyped with regard to MAOA-LPR. The results indicate that the long, (4-repeat) allele confer an increased risk for criminal behavior in the presence of psychosocial risk. Among girls without social risk, MAOA-LPR genotype was of no importance for criminal behavior. The present results suggest that previous observations on adolescent males, which demonstrate that the short MAOA-LPR genotype and psychosocial adversity interact to predict criminal activity, may not be applicable to females.
PubMed ID
17034017 View in PubMed
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Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278652
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2015 Oct;56(5):489-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Sara Lövenhag
Peter Larm
Cecilia Åslund
Kent W Nilsson
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2015 Oct;56(5):489-97
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Male
Problem Behavior - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Underage Drinking - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.
PubMed ID
26094652 View in PubMed
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Assessing Adolescent Anxiety in General Psychiatric Care: Diagnostic Accuracy of the Swedish Self-Report and Parent Versions of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289850
Source
Assessment. 2016 Dec; 23(6):744-757
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2016
Author
Susanne Olofsdotter
Karin Sonnby
Sofia Vadlin
Tomas Furmark
Kent W Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Centre for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Västerås, Sweden susanne.olofsdotter@ltv.se.
Source
Assessment. 2016 Dec; 23(6):744-757
Date
Dec-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Psychiatry - methods
Anxiety - diagnosis
Child
Diagnosis, Differential
Female
Humans
Male
Parents - psychology
Psychometrics - methods
Reproducibility of Results
Self Report
Sweden
Abstract
This study examined the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the Swedish translations of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, self- and parent report versions, in a sample of 104 adolescents presenting at two general psychiatric outpatient units. Results showed high informant agreement and good internal reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity for both versions and demonstrated that this scale can distinguish between adolescents with and without an anxiety disorder in a non-anxiety-specific clinical setting. The relative clinical utility of different cutoff scores was compared by looking at the extent to which dichotomized questionnaire results altered the pretest probability of the presence of a diagnosis as defined by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. Optimized for screening and diagnostic purposes in Sweden, cutoff scores obtained in the current study outperformed a previously identified cutoff score derived from an Australian community sample. The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale is a useful clinical instrument for the assessment of anxiety in adolescents.
PubMed ID
25934162 View in PubMed
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Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288191
Source
Addict Behav. 2016 10;61:8-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
10-2016
Author
Sofia Vadlin
Cecilia Åslund
Charlotta Hellström
Kent W Nilsson
Source
Addict Behav. 2016 10;61:8-15
Date
10-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - psychology
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Video Games - psychology
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa.
PubMed ID
27203825 View in PubMed
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The buffering effect of tangible social support on financial stress: influence on psychological well-being and psychosomatic symptoms in a large sample of the adult general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267238
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2014;13(1):85
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Cecilia Åslund
Peter Larm
Bengt Starrin
Kent W Nilsson
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2014;13(1):85
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Financing, Personal
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Psychophysiologic Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Questionnaires
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health.
Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12).
Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being.
Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25260355 View in PubMed
Less detail

Effects of adolescent online gaming time and motives on depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275077
Source
Ups J Med Sci. 2015;120(4):263-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Charlotta Hellström
Kent W Nilsson
Jerzy Leppert
Cecilia Åslund
Source
Ups J Med Sci. 2015;120(4):263-75
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Psychophysiologic Disorders - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Risk assessment
Sex Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Video Games - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To investigate whether adolescent online gaming time and the additive effect of gaming motives were associated with depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. The hypothesis was that adolescents who engage in online gaming with escape motives and increased online gaming time have higher probability for depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms compared to adolescents with other online gaming motives and/or less online gaming time.
An anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was completed during class hours by 7,757 Swedish adolescents aged 13-18 years. The questionnaire included demographic background, gaming habits, and depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms.
It was found that increased online gaming time during weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. However, these relations with time spent gaming were further explained by online gaming motives. Weekday online gaming for more than five hours a day, in combination with escape motives, was associated with an increased probability of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 4.614, 95% CI 3.230-6.590), musculoskeletal symptoms (OR 2.494, 95% CI 1.598-3.892), and psychosomatic symptoms (OR 4.437, 95% CI 2.966-6.637). The probability of ill health decreased when gaming was for fun or had social motives.
Excessive gaming time and escape motives were found to be associated with increased probability of ill health among adolescents. Gaming motives may identify gamers in need of support to reduce unhealthy gaming behaviour as well as identify individuals at risk for ill health.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26072677 View in PubMed
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Gambling frequency and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to problem gambling among Swedish adolescents: a population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290718
Source
Ups J Med Sci. 2017 Jun; 122(2):119-126
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Charlotta Hellström
Philippe Wagner
Kent W Nilsson
Jerzy Leppert
Cecilia Åslund
Author Affiliation
a Centre for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Västmanland County Hospital , Västerås , Sweden.
Source
Ups J Med Sci. 2017 Jun; 122(2):119-126
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - complications
Female
Gambling - complications
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Regression Analysis
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Abstract
To investigate the associations between gambling frequency, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and problem gambling among adolescent boys and girls. One hypothesis was that adolescents with increased ADHD symptoms have a higher frequency of gambling compared to adolescents with fewer ADHD symptoms.
A population-based sample of adolescents (aged 15-18 years) completed a questionnaire on demographics, gambling habits, ADHD symptoms, and problematic gambling; 1412 adolescents (from 4440 sampled) with gambling experience were included in the final sample.
A zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis revealed that increased ADHD symptoms, higher gambling frequency, and higher age were associated with lower odds for being non-susceptible to gambling problems. Moreover, gambling frequency interacted with ADHD symptoms in predicting probability of being non-susceptible to gambling problems. However, when analysing those already susceptible to problem gambling, ADHD symptoms did not modify the effect of gambling frequency on the expected magnitude of gambling problems. In susceptible individuals, problem gambling increased with both increased ADHD symptoms and increased gambling frequency, but the level of problems due to gambling frequency did not change depending on the ADHD symptom level. There was an interaction effect between sex and gambling frequency in relation to gambling problems.
Adolescents with ADHD symptoms seem to be more sensitive to gambling, in terms of being susceptible to developing gambling problems. However, once susceptible, adolescents with ADHD symptoms are affected by gambling frequency similarly to other susceptible participants.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28436719 View in PubMed
Less detail

Genotypes do not confer risk for delinquency but rather alter susceptibility to positive and negative environmental factors: gene-environmentinteractions of BDNF Val66Met, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA-uVNTR [corrected].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268415
Source
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Mar;18(5)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Kent W Nilsson
Erika Comasco
Sheilagh Hodgins
Lars Oreland
Cecilia Åslund
Source
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Mar;18(5)
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor - genetics
Child Abuse, Sexual - psychology
Epistasis, Genetic
Family Conflict - psychology
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Variation
Genotype
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - psychology
Male
Monoamine Oxidase - genetics
Parent-Child Relations
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Risk factors
Saliva - metabolism
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins - genetics
Sweden
Abstract
Previous evidence of gene-by-environment interactions associated with emotional and behavioral disorders is contradictory. Differences in findings may result from variation in valence and dose of the environmental factor, and/or failure to take account of gene-by-gene interactions. The present study investigated interactions between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met), the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) polymorphisms, family conflict, sexual abuse, the quality of the child-parent relationship, and teenage delinquency.
In 2006, as part of the Survey of Adolescent Life in V?stmanland, Sweden, 1 337 high-school students, aged 17-18 years, anonymously completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples for DNA analyses.
Teenage delinquency was associated with two-, three-, and four-way interactions of each of the genotypes and the three environmental factors. Significant four-way interactions were found for BDNF Val66Met ? 5-HTTLPR?MAOA-uVNTR ? family conflicts and for BDNF Val66Met ? 5-HTTLPR?MAOA-uVNTR ? sexual abuse. Further, the two genotype combinations that differed the most in expression levels (BDNF Val66Met Val, 5-HTTLPR LL, MAOA-uVNTR LL [girls] and L [boys] vs BDNF Val66Met Val/Met, 5-HTTLPR S/LS, MAOA-uVNTR S/SS/LS) in interaction with family conflict and sexual abuse were associated with the highest delinquency scores. The genetic variants previously shown to confer vulnerability for delinquency (BDNF Val66Met Val/Met ? 5-HTTLPR S ? MAOA-uVNTR S) were associated with the lowest delinquency scores in interaction with a positive child-parent relationship.
Functional variants of the MAOA-uVNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and BDNF Val66Met, either alone or in interaction with each other, may be best conceptualized as modifying sensitivity to environmental factors that confer either risk or protection for teenage delinquency.
Notes
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Erratum In: Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Jun;18(8). pii: pyv048. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyv04825958410
PubMed ID
25522433 View in PubMed
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A health dialogue intervention reduces cardiovascular risk factor levels: a population based randomised controlled trial in Swedish primary care setting with 1-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290223
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 08 22; 17(1):669
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-22-2017
Author
Mats Hellstrand
Bo Simonsson
Sevek Engström
Kent W Nilsson
Anu Molarius
Author Affiliation
Competence Centre for Health, Region Västmanland, 721 89, Västerås, Sweden. mats.hellstrand@regionvastmanland.se.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 08 22; 17(1):669
Date
08-22-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - prevention & control
Directive Counseling
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Primary Health Care
Risk factors
Risk Reduction Behavior
Sweden
Abstract
The total number of cardiovascular (CVD) deaths accounted for almost a third of all deaths globally in 2013. Population based randomised controlled trials, managed within primary care, on CVD risk factor interventions are scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a health dialogue intervention in a primary care setting offered to a population at the age of 55 years, focusing on CVD risk factors.
The study was performed in five primary health care centres in the county of Västmanland, Sweden between April 2011 and December 2012. Men and women were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 440) and control groups (n = 440). At baseline, both groups filled in a health questionnaire and serum cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumference, waist hip ratio (WHR) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were measured. Intervention group attended a health dialogue, supported by a visualised health profile, with a possibility for further activities. Participation rates at baseline were 53% and 52% respectively. A 1-year follow-up was carried out.
The intervention group (n = 165) showed reductions compared to the control group (n = 177) concerning body mass index (BMI) (0.3 kg/m2, p = .031), WC (2.1 cm, p = .001) and WHR (.002, p = .001) at the 1-year follow-up. No differences between the intervention and control groups were found in other variables. Intervention group, compared to baseline, had reduced weight, BMI, WC, WHR, HbA1c, and diet, while the men in the control group had reduced their alcohol consumption.
A health dialogue intervention at the age of 55 years, conducted in ordinary primary care, showed a moderate effect on CVD risk factor levels, in terms of BMI, WC and WHR.
BioMed Central, ISRCTN22586871 , date assigned; 10/12/2015.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28830474 View in PubMed
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