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Design of a human biomonitoring community-based project in the Northwest Territories Mackenzie Valley, Canada, to investigate the links between nutrition, contaminants and country foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299330
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Mylene Ratelle
Matthew Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Kelly Skinner
Heidi Swanson
Brian Laird
Author Affiliation
a School of Public Health and Health Systems , University of Waterloo , Waterloo , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Communication
Community Participation - methods
Cooperative Behavior
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food contamination - analysis
Food Supply - standards
Humans
Indians, North American
Northwest Territories - epidemiology
Nutritional Status
Abstract
Community-based projects place emphasis on a collaborative approach and facilitate research among Indigenous populations regarding local issues and challenges, such as traditional foods consumption, climate change and health safety. Country foods (locally harvested fish, game birds, land animals and plants), which contribute to improved food security, can also be a primary route of contaminant exposure among populations in remote regions. A community-based project was launched in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions of the Northwest Territories (Canada) to: 1) assess contaminants exposure and nutrition status; 2) investigate the role of country food on nutrient and contaminant levels and 3) understand the determinants of message perception on this issue. Consultation with community members, leadership, local partners and researchers was essential to refine the design of the project and implement it in a culturally relevant way. This article details the design of a community-based biomonitoring study that investigates country food use, contaminant exposure and nutritional status in Canadian subarctic First Nations in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions. Results will support environmental health policies in the future for these communities. The project was designed to explore the risks and benefits of country foods and to inform the development of public health strategies.
PubMed ID
30157724 View in PubMed
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Design of a human biomonitoring community-based project in the Northwest Territories Mackenzie Valley, Canada, to investigate the links between nutrition, contaminants and country foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294629
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Mylene Ratelle
Matthew Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Kelly Skinner
Heidi Swanson
Brian Laird
Author Affiliation
a School of Public Health and Health Systems , University of Waterloo , Waterloo , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Community-based projects place emphasis on a collaborative approach and facilitate research among Indigenous populations regarding local issues and challenges, such as traditional foods consumption, climate change and health safety. Country foods (locally harvested fish, game birds, land animals and plants), which contribute to improved food security, can also be a primary route of contaminant exposure among populations in remote regions. A community-based project was launched in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions of the Northwest Territories (Canada) to: 1) assess contaminants exposure and nutrition status; 2) investigate the role of country food on nutrient and contaminant levels and 3) understand the determinants of message perception on this issue. Consultation with community members, leadership, local partners and researchers was essential to refine the design of the project and implement it in a culturally relevant way. This article details the design of a community-based biomonitoring study that investigates country food use, contaminant exposure and nutritional status in Canadian subarctic First Nations in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions. Results will support environmental health policies in the future for these communities. The project was designed to explore the risks and benefits of country foods and to inform the development of public health strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30157724 View in PubMed
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Drivers and health implications of the dietary transition among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic: a scoping review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature304772
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2020 Sep 11; :1-19
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-11-2020
Author
Matthew Little
Hilary Hagar
Chloe Zivot
Warren Dodd
Kelly Skinner
Tiff-Annie Kenny
Amy Caughey
Josephine Gaupholm
Melanie Lemire
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2020 Sep 11; :1-19
Date
Sep-11-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The current study undertook a systematic scoping review on the drivers and implications of dietary changes among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic.
A keyword search of peer-reviewed articles was performed using PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database and High North Research Documents. Eligibility criteria included all full-text articles of any design reporting on research on food consumption, nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, dietary change, food security, nutrition-related chronic diseases or traditional food harvesting and consumption among Inuit populations residing in Canada. Articles reporting on in vivo and in vitro experiments or on health impacts of environmental contaminants were excluded.
A total of 162 studies were included. Studies indicated declining country food (CF) consumption in favour of market food (MF). Drivers of this transition include colonial processes, poverty and socio-economic factors, changing food preferences and knowledge, and climate change. Health implications of the dietary transition are complex. Micro-nutrient deficiencies and dietary inadequacy are serious concerns and likely exacerbated by increased consumption of non-nutrient dense MF. Food insecurity, overweight, obesity and related cardiometabolic health outcomes are growing public health concerns. Meanwhile, declining CF consumption is entangled with shifting culture and traditional knowledge, with potential implications for psychological, spiritual, social and cultural health and well-being.
By exploring and synthesising published literature, this review provides insight into the complex factors influencing Inuit diet and health. Findings may be informative for future research, decision-making and intersectoral actions around risk assessment, food policy and innovative community programmes.
PubMed ID
32914743 View in PubMed
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First Nations Elders' perspectives of engagement in community programs in Nak'azdli Whut'en, British Columbia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294867
Source
Can J Public Health. 2018 Sep 12; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-12-2018
Author
Rochelle Tonkin
Shannon Freeman
Jenny Martin
Valerie Ward
Kelly Skinner
Author Affiliation
Northern Medical Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 317-2194 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2018 Sep 12; :
Date
Sep-12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Meaningful social engagement is important to reduce risk for social isolation and loneliness. First Nations Elders are a unique group and little knowledge currently exists of their preferred forms of social interaction. The objective of this study was to describe the types of programs Nak'azdli Elders desire, identify barriers to participation, and improve creation of programs that address Elders' needs and interests.
This project was co-created by the Nak'azdli Health Centre and Elders, located in Northern British Columbia, with support from academic partners when and where asked. An advisory committee selected participants perceived as able to complete the survey and available for interviewing. Participants were interviewed orally in English or Carrier in their homes or at a drop-in centre, by a well-respected Nak'azdli Elder. The Elder entered participant responses (including self-reported health, awareness and utilization for existing programs, and preferences for new programs) into a paper-based survey. Descriptive and content analysis were conducted.
Nak'azdli Elders (N?=?38) were interested in wisdom sharing, social programs, and health-related activities. Elders wanted to be actively engaged in programs/activity selection, helping organize programs, knowledge sharing, skills, and stories. Barriers to participation included lack of transportation, personal health concerns, scheduling conflicts, and lack of knowledge about programs/activities.
Nak'azdli Elders were interested in culturally relevant programs involving sharing cultural knowledge, teachings, and/or language with younger generations. Elders wanted to be engaged in all stages of activities, including planning, participation, and evaluation. Future programs should prioritize community collaboration and co-creation with Elders.
PubMed ID
30209780 View in PubMed
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Food frequency questionnaire assessing traditional food consumption in Dene/M├ętis communities, Northwest Territories, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305903
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2020 12; 79(1):1760071
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2020
Author
Mylène Ratelle
Kelly Skinner
Sara Packull-McCormick
Brian Laird
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2020 12; 79(1):1760071
Date
12-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) can be used to document food consumption and to estimate the intake of contaminants for Indigenous populations. The objective of this project was to refine and implement an FFQ to estimate the consumption of traditional locally harvested foods for Dene/Métis in the Northwest Territories, Canada. The strategy consisted of: 1) refining the FFQ through three focus groups and, 2) implementing the FFQ in Indigenous communities. Participants were asked to complete the FFQ using an iPad to document the types of traditional foods consumed over the past 12 months, as well as the consumption frequency, the portion size, and the preparation methods. Focus groups supported the refinement of the FFQ on the format, the list of foods, and the preparation methods listed in the questionnaire. The refined FFQ was then implemented with participants (n = 237). Findings indicated that the traditional foods most frequently consumed were moose, whitefish and lake trout. Participants who consumed fish and land animals reported, on average, a portion size for one serving of between 126 and 143 g, depending on age and sex. These findings increase knowledge of the current traditional food consumption of Dene/Métis communities and will support the assessment of contaminant exposure.
PubMed ID
32400304 View in PubMed
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Game bird consumption in Dene communities of the Northwest Territories, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303751
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2021 Jan 11; :1-11
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-11-2021
Author
Mylène Ratelle
Laurie Haig
Brian D Laird
Kelly Skinner
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, OntarioN2L 3G1, Canada.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2021 Jan 11; :1-11
Date
Jan-11-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Game bird consumption is an important part of the diet of Indigenous populations in Canada and, as part of country food consumption, is associated with improved nutritional status. The objective of this project was to document the consumption of game birds for Dene First Nations in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada.
Participants were invited to complete a FFQ using an iPad to document the types of country foods consumed, as well as consumption frequency and preparation methods, including thirteen types of game birds.
The project was implemented in nine communities in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions of the NWT, Canada.
A total of 237 children and adult participants from Dene First Nations in the Mackenzie Valley region of the NWT took part in the current study.
FFQ findings indicated that game birds were frequently consumed in both Dehcho and Sahtú communities. Canada goose and mallard were found to be consumed by the largest number of participants. Five different species (including Canada goose and mallard) were found to be consumed by at least 25 % of participants over the last year. When consuming game birds, most participants reported consuming the meat as well as most, if not all, other parts of the bird.
Differences were observed since the last country food assessment in the 1990s in the same regions. These findings increase knowledge of the current Dene diet patterns and support the understanding of diet transition.
PubMed ID
33427192 View in PubMed
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Giving voice to food insecurity in a remote indigenous community in subarctic Ontario, Canada: traditional ways, ways to cope, ways forward.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114202
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:427
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Kelly Skinner
Rhona M Hanning
Ellen Desjardins
Leonard J S Tsuji
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada. kskinner@uwaterloo.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:427
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Diet
Female
Food Supply - standards
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Inuits - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Population Groups - ethnology - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics
Resilience, Psychological
Resource Allocation - methods
Rural Population
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Food insecurity is a serious public health issue for Aboriginal people (First Nations [FN], Métis, and Inuit) living in Canada. Food security challenges faced by FN people are unique, especially for those living in remote and isolated communities. Conceptualizations of food insecurity by FN people are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of food insecurity by FN adults living in a remote, on-reserve community in northern Ontario known to have a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity.
A trained community research assistant conducted semi-directed interviews, and one adult from each household in the community was invited to participate. Questions addressed traditional food, coping strategies, and suggestions to improve community food security and were informed by the literature and a community advisory committee. Thematic data analyses were carried out and followed an inductive, data-driven approach.
Fifty-one individuals participated, representing 67% of eligible households. The thematic analysis revealed that food sharing, especially with family, was regarded as one of the most significant ways to adapt to food shortages. The majority of participants reported consuming traditional food (wild meats) and suggested that hunting, preserving and storing traditional food has remained very important. However, numerous barriers to traditional food acquisition were mentioned. Other coping strategies included dietary change, rationing and changing food purchasing patterns. In order to improve access to healthy foods, improving income and food affordability, building community capacity and engagement, and community-level initiatives were suggested.
Findings point to the continued importance of traditional food acquisition and food sharing, as well as community solutions for food systems change. These data highlight that traditional and store-bought food are both part of the strategies and solutions participants suggested for coping with food insecurity. Public health policies to improve food security for FN populations are urgently needed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23639143 View in PubMed
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Human biomonitoring results of contaminant and nutrient biomarkers in Old Crow, Yukon, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature304184
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2021 Mar 15; 760:143339
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-15-2021
Author
Mallory Drysdale
Mylene Ratelle
Kelly Skinner
Joshua Garcia-Barrios
Mary Gamberg
Megan Williams
Shannon Majowicz
Michele Bouchard
Ken Stark
Dan Chalil
Brian D Laird
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health and Health Systems, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2021 Mar 15; 760:143339
Date
Mar-15-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biological Monitoring
Biomarkers
Canada
Crows
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Humans
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Several large-scale human biomonitoring projects have been conducted in Canada, including the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the First Nations Biomonitoring Initiative (FNBI). However, neither of these studies included participants living in the Yukon. To address this data gap, a human biomonitoring project was implemented in Old Crow, a fly-in Gwich'in community in the northern Yukon. The results of this project provide baseline levels of contaminant and nutrient biomarkers from Old Crow in 2019. Samples of hair, blood, and/or urine were collected from approximately 44% of community residents (77 of 175 adults). These samples were analyzed for contaminants (including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)), and nutrients (including trace elements and omega-3 fatty acids). Levels of these analytes were compared to health-based guidance values, when available, and results from other human biomonitoring projects in Canada. Levels of lead (GM 0.64 µg/g creatinine in urine/24 µg/L blood), cadmium (GM 0.32 µg/g creatinine in urine/0.85 µg/L blood), and mercury (GM 
PubMed ID
33183800 View in PubMed
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Impact of a school snack program on the dietary intake of grade six to ten First Nation students living in a remote community in northern Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121422
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2012;12:2122
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Kelly Skinner
Rhona M Hanning
Joan Metatawabin
Ian D Martin
Leonard J S Tsuji
Author Affiliation
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. kskinner@uwaterloo.ca
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2012;12:2122
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Choice Behavior
Diet Surveys
Energy intake
Female
Food Habits
Food Services
Fruit
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice - ethnology
Humans
Internet
Male
Ontario
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Rural Population
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Snacks
Students - statistics & numerical data
Vegetables
Abstract
School snack and breakfast programs may be especially important in remote northern communities where many households are food insecure. Despite the strong potential for school programs to improve the dietary intake and eating behaviours of children and youth, very few studies have reported on the effects of school nutrition programs in Aboriginal communities. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a school snack program on the dietary intake of grade six to ten First Nation students living in a remote community in northern Ontario.
Data were collected in November 2004 and December 2007 with grade six to ten (aged 10-18 years) students (n=63 and n=50, respectively) using a validated web-based 24 hour diet recall survey, the WEB-Q. Food group consumption and nutrient intake of students participating in the school snack program on the previous day were compared with students who chose not to participate. In each year, ANOVA was used to assess differences between participants and non-participants, genders, and grade groups. The second data collection in December of 2007 included five questions asking students about their participation, preferences, and impressions of the snack program.
Students participating in the snack program during the 2004 data collection (37%; n=23) compared with those who did not (63%; n=40) had significantly (p
PubMed ID
22909226 View in PubMed
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Implementation of human biomonitoring in the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, Canada (2016-2017).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296489
Source
Arch Public Health. 2018; 76:73
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Mylène Ratelle
Kelly Skinner
Matthew J Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Danielle Brandow
Sara Packull-McCormick
Michèle Bouchard
Denis Dieme
Ken D Stark
Juan Jose Aristizabal Henao
Rhona Hanning
Brian D Laird
Author Affiliation
1School of Public Health and Health Systems, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON Canada.
Source
Arch Public Health. 2018; 76:73
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Human biomonitoring represents an important tool for health risk assessment, supporting the characterization of contaminant exposure and nutrient status. In communities where country foods (locally harvested foods: land animals, fish, birds, plants) are integrated in the daily diet, as is the case in remote northern regions where food security is a challenge, such foods can potentially be a significant route of contaminant exposure. To assess this issue, a biomonitoring project was implemented among Dene/Métis communities of the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.
Participants completed dietary surveys (i.e., a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall) to estimate food consumption patterns as well as a Health Messages Survey to evaluate the awareness and perception of contaminants and consumption notices. Biological sampling of hair, urine and blood was conducted. Toxic metals (e.g., mercury, lead, cadmium), essential metals (e.g., copper, nickel, zinc), fatty acids, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in samples.
The levels of contaminants in blood, hair and urine for the majority of participants were below the available guidance values for mercury, cadmium, lead and uranium. However, from the 279 participants, approximately 2% were invited to provide follow up samples, mainly for elevated mercury level. Also, at the population level, blood lead (GM: 11 µg/L) and blood cadmium (GM: 0.53 µg/L) were slightly above the Canadian Health Measures Survey data. Therefore, although country foods occasionally contain elevated levels of particular contaminants, human exposures to these metals remained similar to those seen in the Canadian general population. In addition, dietary data showed the importance and diversity of country foods across participating communities, with the consumption of an average of 5.1% of total calories from wild-harvested country foods.
This project completed in the Mackenzie Valley of the Northwest Territories fills a data gap across other biomonitoring studies in Canada as it integrates community results, will support stakeholders in the development of public health strategies, and will inform environmental health issue prioritization.
PubMed ID
30524727 View in PubMed
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18 records – page 1 of 2.