Indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) is a once-daily inhaled fixed-dose combination of indacaterol (IND), a long-acting ß2-adrenergic agonist (LABA), and glycopyrronium (GLY), a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) for use as maintenance treatment to relieve symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults.
To determine the economic benefits of IND/GLY compared with the free combination of indacaterol and glycopyrronium (IND + GLY), and with the fixed-dose combination of salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC), in a moderate-to-severe COPD population with low-exacerbation risk. The model-based analysis extrapolated results up to lifetime time horizon and calculated costs per quality-adjusted life year.
Assuming equal efficacy, a cost-minimisation analysis compared IND/GLY vs IND + GLY using model inputs from the double-blind, randomised SHINE trial. The double-blind, randomised ILLUMINATE and TORCH trials were used to analyse cost-effectiveness versus SFC. To consider ICS-related pneumonia events, published odds ratio comparing an ICS-exposed group to a control group of COPD patients was used. Direct and indirect drug costs as well as drug acquisition costs (in Swedish Krona [SEK]) were derived from published Swedish sources. Cost and effects were discounted with 3%. Uncertainty was assessed by one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA).
IND/GLY was cost-saving vs IND + GLY with incremental savings of SEK (EUR) 768 (85), and 3309 (368) per patient over one and five years. IND/GLY was found to be less costly and more effective compared to SFC with cost savings of SEK (EUR) 2744 (303), 8854 (976), 13,938 (1536), 27,495 (3031) and 43,033 (4744) over one, three, five, ten years and lifetime. The PSA indicated that all iterations produced dominant results for IND/GLY.
IND/GLY is cost-minimising vs IND + GLY and dominates SFC in the maintenance treatment of COPD patients in Sweden. Encouraging dual bronchodilator therapy over an ICS-containing combination results in lower total costs and better outcomes compared to combination therapy including fluticasone in moderate-to-severe COPD patients with low exacerbation risk.
The present study aimed to generate real-world evidence regarding gender differences among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, especially as regards the diagnosis and outcomes in order to identify areas for improvement and management and optimize the associated healthcare resource allocation. ARCTIC is a large, real-world, retrospective cohort study conducted in Swedish COPD patients and a matched reference population from 52 primary care centers in 2000-2014. The incidence of COPD, prevalence of asthma and other comorbidities, risk of exacerbations, mortality rate, COPD drug prescriptions, and healthcare resource utilization were analyzed. In total, 17,479 patients with COPD were included in the study. During the study period, COPD was more frequent among women (53.8%) and women with COPD experienced more exacerbations vs. men (6.66 vs. 4.66). However, the overall mortality rate was higher in men compared with women (45% vs. 38%), but no difference for mortality due to COPD was seen between genders over the study period. Women seemed to have a greater susceptibility to asthma, fractures, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, rhinitis, depression, and anxiety, but appeared less likely to have diabetes, kidney diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, women had a greater risk of COPD-related hospitalization and were likely to receive a significantly higher number of COPD drug prescriptions compared with men. These results support the need to reduce disease burden among women with COPD and highlight the role of healthcare professionals in primary care who should consider all these parameters in order to properly diagnose and treat women with COPD.
The aim of this study was to assess the association between exacerbation frequency and clinical and economic outcomes in patients with COPD.
Electronic medical record data linked to National Health Registries were collected from COPD patients at 52 Swedish primary care centers (2000-2014). The outcomes analyzed were exacerbation rate, mortality, COPD treatments, lung function and healthcare costs during the follow-up period. Based on the exacerbation rate two years before index date, the patients were initially classified into three groups, either 0, 1 or =2 exacerbations per year. After the index date, the classification into exacerbation groups was updated each year based on the exacerbation rate during the last year of follow-up. A sensitivity analysis was conducted excluding patients with asthma diagnosis from the analysis.
In total 18,586 COPD patients were analyzed. A majority of the patients (60-70%) who either have had no exacerbation or frequent exacerbations (=2/year) during the pre-index period remained in their group (ie, with 0 or =2 annual exacerbations) during up to 11 years of follow-up. Compared with having no exacerbation, mortality was higher in patients having 1 (HR; 2.06 [1.93-2.20]) and =2 (4.58 [4.33-4.84]) exacerbations at any time during the follow-up. Lung function decline was more rapid in patients with frequent exacerbations and there was an almost linear relationship between exacerbations frequency and mortality. Total healthcare costs were higher in the frequent exacerbation group (=2/year) than in patients with no or one exacerbation annually (p
The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess this risk in patients with COPD.Electronic medical record data linked to National Health Registries were collected from COPD patients and matched reference controls at 52 Swedish primary care centres from 2000 to 2014. The outcomes analysed were the effect of ICS on all fractures, fractures typically related to osteoporosis, recorded osteoporosis diagnosis, prescriptions of drugs for osteoporosis and a combined measure of any osteoporosis-related event. The COPD patients were stratified by the level of ICS exposure.A total of 9651 patients with COPD and 59?454 matched reference controls were analysed. During the follow-up, 19.9% of COPD patients had at least one osteoporosis-related event compared with 12.9% of reference controls (p