The aim was to study whether the anticholinergic burden of drugs is related to xerostomia and salivary secretion among community-dwelling elderly people.
Anticholinergic drugs have been shown to be a risk factor for dry mouth, but little is known about the effects of cumulative exposure to anticholinergic drugs measured by anticholinergic burden on salivary secretion or xerostomia.
The study population consisted of 152 community-dwelling, dentate, non-smoking, older people from the Oral Health GeMS study. The data were collected by interviews and clinical examinations. Anticholinergic burden was determined using the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). A Poisson regression model with robust error variance was used to estimate relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%).
Participants with a high-anticholinergic burden (ADS = 3) were more likely to have xerostomia (RR: 3.17; CI: 1.44-6.96), low-unstimulated salivary flow (
To study the associations of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the handgrip strength with oral self-care among dentate home-dwelling elderly people in Finland.
The study analysed data for 168 dentate participants (mean age 80.6 years) in the population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for Good Care of the Elderly (GeMS) study. Each participant received a clinical oral examination and structured interview in 2004-2005. Functional status was assessed using the IADL scale and handgrip strength was measured using handheld dynamometry.
Study participants with high IADL (scores 7-8) had odds ratios (ORs) for brushing their teeth at least twice a day of 2.7 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.1-6.8], for using toothpaste at least twice a day of 2.0 (CI 0.8-5.2) and for having good oral hygiene of 2.8 (CI 1.0-8.3) when compared with participants with low IADL (scores =6). Participants in the upper tertiles of the handgrip strength had ORs for brushing the teeth at least twice a day of 0.9 (CI 0.4-1.9), for using the toothpaste at least twice a day of 0.9 (CI 0.4-1.8) and for good oral hygiene of 1.1 (CI 0.5-2.4) in comparison with the study subjects in the lowest tertile of handgrip strength.
The results of this study suggest that the functional status, measured by means of the IADL scale, but not handgrip strength, is an important determinant of oral self-care among the home-dwelling elderly.
Gerodontology 2010; Dementia and oral health among subjects aged 75 years or older Objective: To study the association between diagnosed dementia and oral health, focusing on the type of dementia, among an elderly population aged 75 years or older. Background: Elderly people with dementia are at risk from oral diseases, but to date, only a few studies have analysed the association between type of dementia and oral health, and their results are inconclusive. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study is based on the Geriatric multi-disciplinary strategy (Gems) study that included 76 demented and 278 non-demented subjects. The data were collected by means of an interview and an oral clinical examination. The type of dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Poisson's and logistic regression models were used to determine relative risks (RR), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence limits (CI). Results: Our results showed that patients with Alzheimer's disease and those with other types of dementia had an increased likelihood of having carious teeth, teeth with deep periodontal pockets, and poor oral and denture hygiene, compared with non-demented persons. The results showed that the type of dementia does not seem to be an essential determinant of oral health. Conclusions: Among the elderly aged 75 years or older, patients with Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia are at increased risk of poor oral health and poor oral hygiene.
Research Centre of Geriatric Care, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland Faculty of Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology and Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Unit, School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland Social and Health Centre of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland Department of Periodontology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Oulu, Finland Oulu Health Centre, Oulu, Finland Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland Faculty of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatrics, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland Leppävirta Health Centre, Leppävirta, Finland.
poor oral health is common among older people dependent on supportive care and it affects their quality of life. Cognitive impairment and functional dependency may increase the risk of compromised daily oral hygiene.
to investigate the effectiveness of a tailored preventive oral health intervention among home care clients aged 75 years or over.
the intervention group comprised 151 patients (84.4 ± 5.6 years) and the control group 118 patients (84.7 ± 5.2 years). An interview and a clinical examination were carried out before a tailored intervention of oral and denture hygiene. The participants in both groups were re-interviewed and re-examined after 6 months.
the intervention significantly reduced the number of plaque covered teeth and improved denture hygiene. In addition, functional ability and cognitive function were significantly associated with better oral hygiene.
the intervention had a positive effect on oral hygiene, however the number of teeth with plaque remained high, even after the intervention. Multiple approaches based on individual needs are required to improve the oral health of vulnerable older adults, including integrating dental preventive care into daily care plan carried out by home care nurses.
To study the relation of sedative load to carious teeth and periodontal pocketing - indication of infectious periodontal disease - among older people.
This cross-sectional study was based on a subpopulation of 158 community-dwelling, dentate, non-smoking, 75-year-old or older people from the Oral Health Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy study. The data were collected by interviews and clinical oral examinations during 2004-2005. Sedative load was measured by means of the sedative load model, and Poisson multivariate regression models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Participants with a sedative load of either 1-2 (n = 31) or =3 (n = 12) had an increased likelihood of having carious teeth (RR: 1.8, CI: 1.2-2.6 and RR: 2.4, CI: 1.4-4.1, respectively) compared to participants without a sedative load. There was an inverse association between sedative load and the number of teeth with periodontal pockets.
Presence of dental caries was associated with the use of drugs with sedative properties. The use of drugs with sedative properties was not associated with the presence of periodontal pockets.
The purpose of this study was to examine drug use and other factors associated with xerostomia in home care clients aged 75 years or older.
The study sample included 270 home care clients aged =75 years living in Eastern and Central Finland. The home care clients underwent in-home interviews carried out by trained home care nurses, nutritionists, dental hygienists and pharmacists. The collected data contained information on sociodemographic factors, health and oral health status, drug use, depressive symptoms (GDS-15), cognitive functioning (MMSE), functional ability (Barthel Index, IADL) and nutrition (MNA). The primary outcome was xerostomia status (never, occasionally or continuously).
Among the home care clients, 56% (n = 150) suffered from xerostomia. Persons with continuous xerostomia used more drugs and had more depressive symptoms and a higher number of comorbidities than other home care clients. In multivariate analyses, excessive polypharmacy (OR = 1.83, 95% Cl 1.08-3.10) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.03-1.22) were associated with xerostomia.
Xerostomia is a common problem among old home care clients. Excessive polypharmacy, use of particular drug groups and depressive symptoms were associated with xerostomia. The findings support the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the care of older home care clients.