To study the determinants of bone mass and density in Finnish girls and young women.
A cross-sectional study.
One hundred and seventy six 8 to 20 year old female volunteers living in the city of Tampere, Finland.
Calcium intake was estimated from a 7 d calcium intake diary (CaD). Bone mineral content (BMC) and areal density (BMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and distal radius. Volumetric bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was estimated from these DXA data. In addition, anthropometric characteristics, isometric muscle strength, and the Tanner stage were determined. Menstrual status and physical activity level were assessed by a questionnaire and personal interview.
Body weight and Tanner stage were the most important determinants of BMC and BMD. Physical activity was the only not growth-related factor associated with BMC, BMD and BMAD. Therefore, it was examined in detail between the PA and NA groups. Site-specific benefits varied from 5-7% for the BMC (lumbar spine and radius) and BMD (lumbar spine and femoral neck) and was about 5% for the BMAD (femoral neck).
Body weight seems to be the most important determinant of the BMC and BMD of growing Finnish girls, but during puberty exercise may beneficially affect BMD at the loaded skeletal sites. Exercise may increase femoral BMAD during peripubertal years. There was no association between calcium intake and the bone variables, but the high level so calcium intake in all age groups of the study was likely to explain the lack of association.
High peak bone mass in early adulthood is an important protective factor against osteoporotic fractures in later life, but little is known about the effects of exercise on growing bone. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine at which state of maturity (Tanner stage), the areal bone mineral density (BMD) differences between the playing and nonplaying arms of junior tennis players become obvious, and to clarify in each developmental stage which training and background variables, if any, could explain the interindividual differences in bones' response to mechanical loading. Ninety-one 7- to 17-year-old female tennis players and 58 healthy female controls were measured. In each Tanner stage, differences in BMD in playing and nonplaying (dominant and nondominant) arms (proximal humerus, humeral shaft, and distal radius) and BMD of the lumbar spine and nondominant distal radius were compared between the controls and players. Within each Tanner stage of players, the associations between training and background variables and BMD differences were analyzed with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. In players, BMD differences between the playing and nonplaying arms were significant (P
BACKGROUND: Proper balance seems to be a critical factor in terms of fall prevention among the elderly. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine factors that are associated with dynamic balance and health-related quality of life in home-dwelling elderly women. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-three healthy postmenopausal women (mean age: 72 years, height: 159 cm, weight: 72 kg) were examined. General health and physical activity were assessed by a questionnaire. Quality of life was measured using a health-related quality of life questionnaire (Rand 36-Item Health Survey 1.0). Dynamic balance (agility) was tested by a figure-of-eight running test. Static balance (postural sway) was tested on an unstable platform. Maximal isometric strength of the leg extensors was measured with a leg press dynamometer. Dynamic muscle strength of lower limbs was tested by measuring ground reaction forces with a force platform during common daily activities (sit-to-stand and step-on-a-stair tests). RESULTS: Concerning physical activity, 33% of the subjects reported brisk exercise (walking, Nordic walking, cross-country skiing, swimming and aquatic exercises) at least twice a week, and 22% some kind of brisk activity once a week in addition to lighter physical exercise. The remaining 45% did not exercise regularly and were classified as sedentary. The correlations of step-on-a-stair and sit-to-stand ground reaction forces, and leg extensor strength to dynamic balance were from -0.32 to -0.43 (the better the strength, the better the balance). In the regression analysis with backward elimination, step-on-a-stair and sit-to-stand ground reaction forces, and leg extensor strength, age, brisk physical activity, number of diseases and dynamic postural stability explained 42% of the variance in the dynamic balance. Similarly, dynamic balance (figure-of-eight running time), number of diseases and walking more than 3 km per day explained 14% of the variance in the quality of life score. Of these, figure-of-eight running time was the strongest predictor of the quality of life score, explaining 9% of its variance. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the concept that in home-dwelling elderly women good muscle strength in lower limbs is crucial for proper body balance and that dynamic balance is an independent predictor of a standardized quality of life estimate. The results provide important and useful information when planning meaningful contents for studies related to fall prevention and quality of life and interventions in elderly women.
This study showed that the prevalence of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and performance) among 70-80-year-old home-dwelling Finnish women is very low, while every third woman has WHO-based osteopenia (low bone mass). Muscle mass and derived indices of sarcopenia were not significantly related to measures of functional ability.
This study aims to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and osteopenia among four hundred nine 70-80-year-old independently living Finnish women. The study compared consensus diagnostic criteria for age-related sarcopenia recently published by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWG) and assessed their associations with functional ability.
Femoral bone mineral density and body composition were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), gait speed, and handgrip strength were used for sarcopenia diagnosis. Independent samples t tests determined group differences in body composition and functional ability according to recommended diagnostic cutpoints. Scatter plots were used to illustrate the correlations between the outcome measures used for diagnosis.
Prevalence of sarcopenia was 0.9 and 2.7 % according to the EWGSOP and IWG, respectively. Thirty-six percent of the women had WHO-based osteopenia. Women with higher gait speed had significantly lower body weight and fat mass percentage, higher lean mass percentage, and better functional ability. Women with a low SMI weighed significantly less, with no significant differences in other outcome measures. SMI, gait speed, and grip strength were significantly correlated.
Our study suggests that when using consensus definitions, sarcopenia is infrequent among older home-dwelling women while every third woman has osteopenia. In clinical practice, attention should be paid to the decline in functional ability rather than focusing on low muscle mass alone.
Three hundred eighty-seven home-dwelling older women were divided into quartiles based on mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) levels. The rates of falls and fallers were about 40% lower in the highest S-25(OH)D quartile compared to the lowest despite no differences in physical functioning, suggesting that S-25(OH)D levels may modulate individual fall risk.
Vitamin D supplementation of 800 IU did not reduce falls in our previous 2-year vitamin D and exercise RCT in 70-80 year old women. Given large individual variation in individual responses, we assessed here effects of S-25(OH)D levels on fall incidence.
Irrespective of original group allocation, data from 387 women were explored in quartiles by mean S-25(OH)D levels over 6-24 months; means (SD) were 59.3 (7.2), 74.5 (3.3), 85.7 (3.5), and 105.3 (10.9) nmol/L. Falls were recorded monthly with diaries. Physical functioning and bone density were assessed annually. Negative binomial regression was used to assess incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for falls and Cox-regression to assess hazard ratios (HR) for fallers. Generalized linear models were used to test between-quartile differences in physical functioning and bone density with the lowest quartile as reference.
There were 37% fewer falls in the highest quartile, while the two middle quartiles did not differ from reference. The respective IRRs (95% CI) for falls were 0.63 (0.44 to 0.90), 0.78 (0.55 to 1.10), and 0.87 (0.62 to 1.22), indicating lower falls incidence with increasing mean S-25(OH)D levels. There were 42% fewer fallers (HR 0.58; 040 to 0.83) in the highest quartile compared to reference. Physical functioning did not differ between quartiles.
Falls and faller rates were about 40% lower in the highest S-25(OH)D quartile despite similar physical functioning in all quartiles. Prevalent S-25(OH)D levels may influence individual fall risk. Individual responses to vitamin D treatment should be considered in falls prevention.