The house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae, was fractionated by a Sephadex G-200 column. Its allergenic (IgE-reacting) and immunogenic (IgG-reacting) components were investigated. By means of skin test, the molecular weight (MW) of major allergenic components of mite was found to be approximately 9,000 to 21,000 daltons. Immunogenic components were investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using each fraction as an antigen and mice plasma and human serum as antibodies. With mouse plasma, high IgG antibody titers were observed in fractions that contained the part of the mite with high MW (greater than 150,000). With human sera, high IgG antibody titers were observed in fractions that contained the part of the mite with MW more than 30,000. Heterogeneity of human IgG antibody responses against mite antigen was also suggested.
Indices of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have been reported to be associated with daily mortality and morbidity in a large number of recent time-series studies. However, the question remains as to which components of PM are responsible for the reported associations. Multiple PM components rarely are measured simultaneously. To investigate PM effects on mortality and morbidity, we used the multiple PM components measured in Windsor, Ontario, at a site only a few miles from downtown Detroit, Michigan. This study focused primarily on two study periods in which multiple PM components were measured in Windsor: 1985 to 1990, when levels of total suspended particles (TSP), sulfate from TSP (TSP-SO4(2-)), PM less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), and nonthoracic TSP (TSP-PM10) were measured throughout the year; and 1992 to 1994, when data on PM10, PM2.5 (PM less than 2.5 microns in diameter), PM10-2.5 (PM10 minus PM2.5), particle acidity (H+), and artifact-free sulfates (SO4(2-)) were available for mostly summer months. Mortality data were analyzed for the 1985 to 1990 study period, and data on both mortality and hospital admissions of elderly patients were analyzed for the 1992 through 1994 period. Poisson regressions were used to estimate the effects of these PM components and gaseous criteria pollutants on mortality (nonaccidental, circulatory, respiratory, and nonaccidental without circulatory and respiratory) and on hospital admissions of elderly patients (for pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and stroke), adjusting for temperature and humidity, trends and seasonal cycles, and day of the week. Both PM10 and TSP were associated significantly with respiratory mortality for the 1985 to 1990 period, with similar relative risk (RR) estimates for PM10 (RR = 1.123; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0361-1.218) and TSP (RR = 1.109; 95% CI 1.028-1.197), per 5th to 95th percentile increment. The effect-size estimates for TSP-SO4(2-) and TSP-PM10 were smaller and less significant. In two-pollutant models, simultaneous inclusion of gaseous pollutants with PM10 or TSP reduced PM coefficients by 0 to 34%. The effect-size estimates for total mortality, circulatory mortality, and total minus circulatory and respiratory mortality were less than those for respiratory mortality. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) also were associated significantly with total and circulatory mortality, but a simultaneous consideration of these pollutants with PM10 reduced PM10 coefficients only slightly, or even increased them. In these results, pollution coefficients often were positive at multiple lag days (0-day through 3-day lags were examined), but for PM indices, 1-day lag coefficients were most significant. However, when all combinations of multiple-day average exposures were examined, for cases in which multiple lag days were positive, the choice of single-day or multiple-day average exposure did not appreciably change the estimated effect sizes. An examination of temporal correlation showed that the order of spatial uniformity as expressed by the median site-to-site correlation was O3 (0.83), PM10 (0.78), TSP (0.71), NO2 (0.70), carbon monoxide (CO) (0.50), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) (0.49), which suggests less exposure error for O3 and PM10 than for the other measured pollutants. Thus, these results suggest that spatially homogeneous pollution indices show higher associations with measured health outcomes.
The high incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus is suspected to be due to radiation exposure after the Chernobyl reactor accident. To clarify the clinical and histological characteristics of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus, we therefore compared these patients to a radiation non-exposed control series in Japan. In Belarus, 26 thyroid cancers in subjects aged 15 or younger were diagnosed among 25,000 screened between 1991 and 1995 by Chernobyl-Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. The clinical and morphologic features of these 26 cases were compared to 37 childhood thyroid cancers in Japan diagnosed between 1962 and 1995. The age distribution at operation in Belarus showed a peak at 10 years old, with a subsequent fall in numbers. In contrast, the age distribution at operation in Japan showed a smooth increase between the ages of 8 and 14. The mean tumor diameter was smaller in Belarus than that in Japan (1.4 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.1 +/- 1.7 cm, P
Since the histamine release test is more complicated than some of the other tests, there are smaller number of clinical studies employing this method. In this study, we selected 25 males and 20 females, allergic to the house dust mite, to undergo the histamine release test challenged by 7 serial concentrations of the mite allergen diluted from 10 times to 10 million times the original allergen at a concentration of 0.01%. Histamine release was expressed as a percentage of the total histamine concentration contained in the cells. Allergen induced dose response curve of histamine release was drawn for each patient, and in order to characterize each curve, 5 different indices were selected and were averaged according to the clinical backgrounds of the patients. Significant increases in histamine release were observed in males under 25 and females above 26 years of age. Histamine release rate in patients with RAST score of above 3+ was significantly more enhanced than in those with RAST score of below 2+, though this result was significant only for those under 25 years of age. Blood samples taken in June-August, and September-November, showed significant increases in the histamine release, though the indices for enhancement differed in both seasons. When analyzed according to the numbers of years the patient was desensitized, the results showed, contrary to our expectations, a more increased release in the desensitized group than in the non-desensitized group.
IgG antibodies to Chironomidae and its correlations to radioallergosorbent and skin reactions were examined with the aim of clarifying the relationship between asthma and Chironomidae. The level of specific IgG antibody in asthmatic patients (0.698 +/- 0.034, n = 104) was significantly greater than that in normal subjects (0.367 +/- 0.032, n = 52) (P less than 0.01). The specific IgG level was not correlated to skin reaction, nor to IgE RAST scores. Specific IgG1 and IgG4 levels in asthmatic patients were significantly greater than in control subjects (n = 14) (P less than 0.01).
Crude mite extract (CME) was orally administered to guinea pigs sensitized to CME. It was shown that such treatment reduces the bronchoconstrictive response upon allergen provocation. Isolated tracheae taken from guinea pigs orally administered CME allergen showed less contraction in response to CME as compared to those obtained from sensitized but not orally treated animals. The oral administration of allergens seemed to attenuate the bronchial hyperresponsiveness of sensitized animals to a non-specific chemical stimulus (histamine). IgE antibodies titrated by 8 days passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies measured by ELISA were comparable in the sera obtained from animals before and after CME treatment.
A 65-year-old woman with facial erythema and hypergammaglobulinemia developed excessive fatigability. A diagnosis of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) was made from electrophysiological studies. She had symptoms and laboratory data compatible with probable Sjögren's syndrome. Skin biopsy revealed the histological findings of discoid lupus erythematosus. Treatment with 3,4-diaminopyridine resulted in the improvement of fatigability. LEMS should be recognized as a treatable complication of systemic autoimmune diseases.
Mite antigens (Dermatophagoides farinae) were fractionated by a Sephadex G-200 column and their reactivities with IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies were investigated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). High IgE antibody values were observed in fractions with low molecular weight (allergenic part), while high IgG1 and IgG4 antibody values were observed in fractions with high molecular weight. High IgG4 antibody values to crude mite extract and fractions with high molecular weight were detected in individuals who had received immunotherapy. However, IgG4 antibodies directed to allergenic part were found in only one out of 12 sera tested. IgG4-ELISA using DF1 (major allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae) as antigen was also performed. In the group treated with mite, significant IgG4 antibody levels were detected in only one out of 13 sera tested. In the group treated with house dust, significant IgG4 antibodies were detected in only one out of 12 sera tested. Patients who showed high IgG4 antibody responses to crude mite extract and to high molecular weight did not show responses to allergenic part and DF1. The only case who showed positive IgG4 responses to allergenic part also reacted with DF1. Those results suggest that IgG1 and IgG4 antibody values in ELISA using crude mite extract as antigen do not reflect major allergen-specific antibody values. The importance of the use of partially purified antigens in measuring major allergen-specific IgG4 antibodies was also suggested.
During July and August of 1986, 1987, and 1988, a field study was conducted of ambient acidic aerosol levels in Toronto, Ontario. Fine particle mass (da or = 100 nmole/m3) did occur in this city during the summer months, and that H+ peaks were well correlated with sulfate peaks. Virtually all of the H+ was found to be present as ammonium bisulfate (NH4HSO4). While H+ concentrations were highly correlated among the three monitoring sites (r = 0.9), the highest H+/SO4 = ratios prevailed during SO4 = episode periods and at the least urbanized site. This latter trend was apparently due to greater neutralization of H+ by local ammonia at the more urbanized sites. Comparisons of day vs night H+/SO4 = ratios, an examination of air mass back-trajectories, and contemporaneous H+ measurements at surrounding sites collectively indicated that transported regional haze air pollution from the United States is a major contributor to the H+ events recorded within Toronto.