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The 20th century Danish facial cleft population--epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33384
Source
Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999 Mar;36(2):96-104
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
K. Christensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, Epidemiology, Odense University, Denmark. k-christensen@win-chs.ou.dk
Source
Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999 Mar;36(2):96-104
Date
Mar-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cleft Lip - epidemiology - genetics
Cleft Palate - epidemiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Epidemiology, Molecular
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Seasons
Sex Factors
Twin Studies
Variation (Genetics)
Abstract
Since Dr. Fogh-Andersen's legendary 1942 thesis, the Danish facial cleft population has been one of the most extensively studied in terms of epidemiology and genetic-epidemiology. The etiology of cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is still largely an enigma, and different results concerning environmental and genetic risk factors are obtained in different countries and regions. This may be due to etiological heterogeneity between settings. Therefore, an in-depth studied area with an ethnically homogeneous population, such as Denmark, has provided one of the best opportunities for progress in CLP etiological research. The present review summarizes epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies conducted in the 20th century Danish facial cleft population. Furthermore, analyses of sex differences, time trends and seasonality for more than 7000 CLP cases born in Denmark in the period 1936 to 1987 are presented. The review also points toward the excellent opportunities for continued etiological CLP research in Denmark in the 21st century using already established resources and an on-going prospective cohort study of 100,000 pregnant women.
PubMed ID
10213053 View in PubMed
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Abortion and calf mortality in Danish cattle herds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64883
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 1993;34(4):371-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
J S Agerholm
A. Basse
H V Krogh
K. Christensen
L. Rønsholt
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology and Epidemiology, National Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 1993;34(4):371-7
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Veterinary - etiology
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Cattle
Cattle Diseases - etiology - mortality
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Fetal Death - veterinary
Infection - mortality - veterinary
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
The aetiology of abortions and calf mortality in 65 Danish cattle herds consisting of both dairy and beef breeds during a 1-year period is described. All observed aborted foetuses, still-born calves, and calves dying before 6 months of age were necropsied, and relevant microbiological examinations were performed. A total of 240 calves and 66 abortions were submitted corresponding to a calf mortality rate of 7%. The abortion frequency could not be calculated. 43% of the calves died at day 0, while 22% were aborted, 15% died during the first week of life, 9% died from 1 to 4 weeks of age, and 11% died at the age of 1 to 6 months. The most common cause was neonatal pulmonic atelectasis (stillbirth) followed by foetal infections, pneumonia, and septicaemia.
PubMed ID
8147289 View in PubMed
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Absence of an environmental effect on the recurrence of facial-cleft defects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35236
Source
N Engl J Med. 1995 Jul 20;333(3):161-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-20-1995
Author
K. Christensen
M M Schmidt
M. Vaeth
J. Olsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Epidemiology Science Center research unit, Steno Institute of Public Health, Aarhus.
Source
N Engl J Med. 1995 Jul 20;333(3):161-4
Date
Jul-20-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cleft Lip - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Cleft Palate - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Paternity
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND. The rate of recurrence of a broad range of birth defects may decrease among women who change residence after the birth of their first infant. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of changing residence on the recurrence of congenital facial-cleft defects. METHODS. We identified 4189 women who had infants with facial-cleft defects by linking a data base comprising the records of children with facial clefts born between 1952 and 1987 with the Central Person Registry in Denmark. Among the 4189 mothers, 1902 each had additional children after the first child with a facial-cleft defect. A total of 2692 younger siblings were identified. We compared the proportion of infants with facial-cleft defects among the younger siblings between mothers who had changed municipalities or sexual partners and those who had not. RESULTS. Changing the municipality of residence did not decrease the frequency with which facial-cleft defects recurred in younger siblings. Among the 907 infants of mothers who changed municipalities but not partners, 29 (3.2 percent) had facial-cleft defects, as compared with 48 (3.4 percent) of 1425 infants of mothers who changed neither municipality nor partner (relative risk, 0.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.5). However, a change of partner reduced the recurrence risk significantly. Among 236 infants of mothers who changed partners, 1 (0.4 percent) had a facial-cleft defect, as compared with 77 (3.3 percent) of 2350 infants of mothers who did not change partners (relative risk, 0.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.02 to 0.9). CONCLUSIONS. Recurrence of facial-cleft defects is not linked to the residence of the mother, but having a different partner reduced a woman's risk of having a second child with this defect.
PubMed ID
7791818 View in PubMed
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Adult glucose metabolism in extremely birthweight-discordant monozygotic twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120924
Source
Diabetologia. 2012 Dec;55(12):3204-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
M. Frost
I. Petersen
K. Brixen
H. Beck-Nielsen
J J Holst
L. Christiansen
K. Højlund
K. Christensen
Author Affiliation
The Danish Twin Registry, Department of Epidemiology, University of Southern Denmark, JB Winsløvsvej 9, Odense C, Denmark. frostnielsen@yahoo.com
Source
Diabetologia. 2012 Dec;55(12):3204-12
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Analysis of Variance
Birth weight
Blood Glucose - metabolism
C-Peptide - blood
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - epidemiology
Disease Susceptibility - blood - epidemiology
Female
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 - blood
Glucose Intolerance
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Insulin Resistance
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
Low birthweight (BW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared glucose metabolism in adult BW-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins, thereby controlling for genetic factors and rearing environment.
Among 77,885 twins in the Danish Twin Registry, 155 of the most BW-discordant MZ twin pairs (median BW difference 0.5 kg) were assessed using a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test with sampling of plasma (p-)glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1. HOMA for beta cell function (HOMA-ß) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and also insulin sensitivity index (BIGTT-SI) and acute insulin response (BIGTT-AIR), were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed in those with: (1) double verification of BW difference; (2) difference in BW >0.5 kg; and (3) no overt metabolic disease (type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia or thyroid disease).
No intra-pair differences in p-glucose, insulin, C-peptide, incretin hormones, HOMA-ß, HOMA-IR or BIGTT-SI were identified. p-Glucose at 120 min was higher in the twins with the highest BW without metabolic disease, and BIGTT-AIR was higher in those with the highest BW although not in pairs with a BW difference of >0.5 kg.
BW-discordant MZ twins provide no evidence for a detrimental effect of low BW on glucose metabolism in adulthood once genetic factors and rearing environment are controlled for.
PubMed ID
22955993 View in PubMed
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Source
Lancet. 1996 Apr 6;347(9006):976
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-6-1996
Author
K. Christensen
N V Holm
J W Vaupel
Source
Lancet. 1996 Apr 6;347(9006):976
Date
Apr-6-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alzheimer Disease - etiology - genetics - psychology
Cognition
Denmark
Diseases in Twins
Humans
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Notes
Comment On: Lancet. 1996 Mar 2;347(9001):573-88596319
PubMed ID
8598793 View in PubMed
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An epidemiological study of congenital anorectal malformations: 15 Danish birth cohorts followed for 7 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37624
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1990 Jul;4(3):269-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1990
Author
K. Christensen
C M Madsen
M. Hauge
K. Kock
Author Affiliation
University Institute of Medical Genetics, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1990 Jul;4(3):269-75
Date
Jul-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Multiple - epidemiology - genetics - mortality - surgery
Anal Canal - abnormalities - surgery
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Length of Stay
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Prevalence
Rectum - abnormalities - surgery
Survival Rate
Abstract
In the county of Fyn (about 500,000 inhabitants) which is a well defined and representative 10% sample of the total Danish population, 15 total birth cohorts were scrutinized for the occurrence of anorectal malformations (ARM). All the patients were followed until the age of 7 or death. In a total of 96,073 births, 29 cases were observed; one concordant monozygotic pair was counted as one case. The study showed the point prevalence at birth to be 3.0 per 10,000; almost the same frequency has been found in Sweden whereas other figures from Europe and North America are lower. Children with ARM have in general a poor prognosis, largely due to the many associated anomalies. In this material, 11 of 12 isolated ARM cases survived until age 7, but five of these had significant handicaps. Out of 17 probands with associated anomalies, only seven survived until age 7, all of them having some handicap. This group of patients spent at least 15 times more days in hospital than an age-matched group from the same region until age 7, and they underwent a considerable number of operations. The study showed an increased frequency of chromosome anomalies among children with ARM.
PubMed ID
2374746 View in PubMed
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Association between maternal Gm allotype and neonatal septicaemia with group B streptococci.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature60472
Source
J Immunogenet. 1982 Apr;9(2):143-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1982
Author
R. Grubb
K K Christensen
P. Christensen
V. Lindén
Source
J Immunogenet. 1982 Apr;9(2):143-7
Date
Apr-1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Female
Gene Frequency
Humans
Immunoglobulin Allotypes - biosynthesis - genetics - immunology
Immunoglobulin G - biosynthesis - genetics - immunology
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Newborn, Diseases - epidemiology - genetics - immunology
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Pregnancy
Septicemia - epidemiology - genetics - immunology
Streptococcal Infections - epidemiology - genetics - immunology
Streptococcus agalactiae - genetics - immunology
Sweden
Abstract
Thirty-four mothers to infants seriously infected with group B streptococci (GBS) were investigated for G1m (1) and G3m(5) allotype markers. The frequency of Gm (1, -5) was 14.7%, of Gm(1,5) 20.6% and Gm (-1, 5) 64.7%. There was a marked deficit Gm (1) individuals and the distribution significantly differed from that in the normal Swedish populations.
PubMed ID
7045234 View in PubMed
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Association of mutations in the hemochromatosis gene with shorter life expectancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192392
Source
Arch Intern Med. 2001 Nov 12;161(20):2441-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-12-2001
Author
L. Bathum
L. Christiansen
H. Nybo
K A Ranberg
D. Gaist
B. Jeune
N E Petersen
J. Vaupel
K. Christensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Blvd 29, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. Lise.Bathum@ouh.fyns-amt.dk
Source
Arch Intern Med. 2001 Nov 12;161(20):2441-4
Date
Nov-12-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - genetics
Female
Gene Frequency - genetics
Genetic Testing
Genotype
HLA Antigens - genetics
Hemochromatosis - genetics - mortality
Heterozygote
Heterozygote Detection
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I - genetics
Humans
Life expectancy
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Membrane Proteins
Middle Aged
Mutation - genetics
Population Surveillance
Abstract
To investigate whether the frequency of carriers of mutations in the HFE gene associated with hereditary hemochromatosis diminishes with age as an indication that HFE mutations are associated with increased mortality. It is of value in the debate concerning screening for hereditary hemochromatosis to determine the significance of heterozygosity.
Genotyping for mutations in exons 2 and 4 of the HFE gene using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in 1784 participants aged 45 to 100 years from 4 population-based studies: all 183 centenarians from the Danish Centenarian Study, 601 people aged 92 to 93 years from the Danish 1905 Cohort, 400 aged 70 to 94 years from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins, and 600 aged 45 to 67 years from a study of middle-aged Danish twins.
All participants (N=1784) were screened for mutations in exon 4, and a trend toward fewer heterozygotes for the C282Y mutation-the mutation most often associated with hereditary hemochromatosis-was found. This was significant for the whole population (P=.005) and for women (P=.004) but not for men (P=.26). A group of 599 participants was screened for mutations in exon 2, and there was no variation in the distribution of mutations in exon 2 in the different age groups.
In a high-carrier frequency population like Denmark, mutations in HFE show an age-related reduction in the frequency of heterozygotes for C282Y, which suggests that carrier status is associated with shorter life expectancy.
Notes
Comment In: Arch Intern Med. 2002 May 27;162(10):1196-712020197
PubMed ID
11700156 View in PubMed
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Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility: findings from a contemporary Danish Twin Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32319
Source
Demography. 2001 Feb;38(1):29-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2001
Author
J L Rodgers
H P Kohler
K O Kyvik
K. Christensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA. jrodgers@ou.edu
Source
Demography. 2001 Feb;38(1):29-42
Date
Feb-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Birth rate
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Fertility - genetics
Humans
Male
Maternal Age
Models, Genetic
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Twins - genetics
Abstract
Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (FirstTry) and number of children (NumCh). Behavior genetic models were fitted using structural equation modeling and DF analysis. A consistent medium-level additive genetic influence was found for NumCh, equal across genders; a stronger genetic influence was identified for FirstTry, greater for females than for males. A bivariate analysis indicated significant shared genetic variance between NumCh and FirstTry.
PubMed ID
11227843 View in PubMed
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105 records – page 1 of 11.