Screening of 43 healthy Danish haemophiliacs revealed a significantly lower helper/suppressor (H/S) ratio than in controls. 8 of the haemophiliacs had an H/S ratio less than or equal to 1.0. A significant negative correlation occurred between the total lifetime factor VIII treatment and the H/S ratio. However, high-dose factor VIII treatment given to patients with antibodies against factor VIII was not associated with immunological abnormalities. Children had a significantly higher H/S ratio than the adult haemophiliacs. Patients exclusively treated with Danish cryoprecipitate during the last year had a significantly higher H/S ratio than patients receiving preparations from other sources. This difference might, however, be explained by lower age and lower total lifetime dose in the group receiving Danish preparations. Haemophiliacs treated with American preparations did not differ immunologically from those treated with preparations of other origin. Total serum IgG was increased in 23% of the patients. This parameter was negatively correlated with the H/S ratio. The possible relation of the observed immunological alterations among otherwise healthy haemophiliacs to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome warrants further attention.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of an inhalable aerosol sampler would improve the correlation between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and occupational pyrene exposure compared to measurements with a total dust sampler in an electrode paste plant. PAHs were collected on a filter and adsorbent by a 37-mm closed-face total aerosol sampler and an open-face sampler for inhalable aerosol from the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM). 1-Hydroxypyrene in pre- and post-shift urine samples was quantitated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this study, the use of the IOM sampler resulted in approximately four times higher concentrations of particulate PAH and pyrene than the total dust sampler. The correlation between pyrene levels measured with the two samplers was good with a correlation coefficient of 0.83. The correlation between workplace air pyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene in post-shift urine was poor (r = -0.12), but a small non-significant improvement was found with the IOM sampler (r = 0.11). In this factory the use of an inhalable aerosol sampler had only marginal effect on the correlation between 1-hydroxypyrene in urine and breathing zone pyrene. These results indicate that skin exposure is an important route of PAH uptake in this plant.
Large amounts of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are found in the work environment of electrode paste workers. Inhalation and skin uptake are both important routes for PAH exposure. We have studied the effect of dust-protective respirator masks by measuring urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for PAH exposure. Eighteen workers divided into work categories at the factory were monitored by personal air sampling and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene every work shift for two consecutive weeks. In the second week of the study, the workers were encouraged to wear respirator masks persistently, which resulted in a significant reduction in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in end-of-shift samples (paired t-test, P = 0.009). When correcting urinary 1-hydroxypyrene for ambient air pyrene we found on average 41% reduction in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in the second week of the intervention study. There was a work-category dependent variation in the correlation between end-of-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene samples and pyrene measured in the breathing zone of the workers, most likely due to variable skin uptake of pyrene; the overall correlation coefficient was 0.26 (P = 0.015). The 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in pre- and post-shift urine samples varied between 0.7 and 69.6 mumol/mol creatinine in the normal work week, and depended on the work category. The particulate PAH exposure ranged from 0.6 to 21.4 micrograms/m3. The ratio of particulate pyrene to benzo[a]pyrene varied from 1.6 to 8.0 amongst the various work categories within the same plant. Multiple regression analysis showed that smoking and work day are explanatory variables for the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. Thirty-nine percent of the variation in the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level at the end of shift could be explained by the independent variables pyrene concentration in air, smoking habits, work day, use of respiratory mask, work category and age.
Screening of sixty-six asymptomatic homosexual men from Copenhagen revealed significantly lower Leu-3a/Leu-2a ratios as compared to controls. Ten (15%) of the homosexuals had a ratio less than or equal to 1.0. The low Leu-3a/Leu-2a ratios were the result of an increase in the absolute number of Leu-2a cells. Homosexuals with many partners and those who had been sexual partners of patients with the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) had significantly lower ratios than those without these features. Cytomegalovirus was isolated from urine and/or sputum of 15% and this was associated with a Leu-3a/Leu-2a ratio less than or equal to 1.0. The observed immunological abnormalities could either represent latent infection with the putative AIDS agent or alternatively be caused by repeated infections and/or exposure to allogenic spermatocytes or lymphocytes.