While previous research has suggested that body thinness is related to subsequent linear growth in children, it is unclear whether thinness at birth is related to linear growth in newborns and catch-up growth in small-forgestational age newborns. Drawing on data from a longitudinal growth study of 3,650 full-term Swedish babies, this study examines linear growth from birth to 6 months of age in three groups of newborns with short ( 2 SDS) body length for gestational age. Among infants short at birth, the Benn Index (kg/m2.69) at birth was not related to the odds of short stature ( 0.10). Nonetheless, the Benn Index was positively related to growth velocity in the first 6 months of life in the short (p = 0.060), appropriate (p
Birth data for patients who later develop growth hormone deficiency: preliminary analysis of a national register. The Executive Scientific Committee of the Kabi International Growth Study and the Swedish Paediatric Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment.
This study analyses gestational age, mode of delivery and size at birth in children who later developed idiopathic or organic growth hormone deficiency (GHD). A data register of children on growth hormone (GH) treatment in Sweden was compared with the Swedish Medical Birth Register during a 14-year period (1973-1986) comprising 1.4 million newborn children. Size at birth was evaluated using a new Swedish reference standard based on data from around 500,000 newborn children. It was found that the children who later develop idiopathic GHD (IGHD) were born with a normal distribution of gestational age. They were more often born with breech delivery (7.1% versus 2.8%) or caesarean section (16.6% versus 10.4%) compared with normal children. The children's condition at birth was poorer than normal, as shown by the frequency of Apgar scores below 7 at 5 minutes (5.2% versus 1.2%). Finally, it was found that children who later develop IGHD (n = 220) had a median birth length of 0.87 SDS below the mean and a median birth weight of 0.60 SDS below the mean of the standard. In contrast, both the birth length and weight of the children who later develop organic GHD (OGHD) (n = 92) did not differ from that of the reference.
The aim of this study was to determine the level of agreement between body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). Fat-free mass (FFM), body fat mass and body fatness (percentage fat) were measured by DXA, BIA and BIS in 61 healthy children (37M, 24F, aged 10.9-13.9 y). Estimates of FFM, body fat mass and body fatness were highly correlated (r = 0.73-0.96, p
Body mass index (BMI) is an important indicator of nutritional status. Many studies have been done to present BMI reference values in centile values rather than mean and SD values since its statistical distribution is positively skewed. Both height and weight growth charts are usually available in terms of mean and 1, 2 and 3 SD around the means; it would be of clinical value to produce BMI reference charts in a similar way. The aim of this work was to derive the mean and +/- 1, 2 and 3 SD BMI reference ranges as a supplement to the BMI centile reference values published previously for the same group of Swedish children. The method was based on an age-dependent Box transformation, and the beta-value was given as a third-degree polynomial function over the paediatric age. The BMI reference values can be given from mathematical functions in addition to values for specific ages. Conclusion: The BMI reference values and charts derived as described effectively reflect the nature of the variant age-dependent positive skewed statistical distribution of BMI values in the population, and can serve as a valid supplementary tool in the evaluation of growth and nutrition during paediatric years.
A large number of studies have documented a strong correlation between size at birth and subsequent height, although the reported incidence of catch-up growth and consequently the impact on final height has varied with time and between countries. These variations may be real, but could also be related to a number of methodological problems. The aim of this study was to explore two important aspects related to postnatal growth after disturbed fetal growth: first, the definition of small for gestational age (SGA), including the selection of cut-off points in defining shortness; and, secondly, the importance of the general socio-economic status of the population with regard to the incidence of growth faltering in early life. Data were analysed from two longitudinal population-based studies, one from Sweden and one from Hong Kong. Of the Swedish cohort, 3.8% had a birth length below -2 SD scores; in the Hong Kong population the corresponding value was 11.9% (Swedish reference values were used in both studies). The following conclusions were made. Size at birth is important for postnatal growth, and the difference in length at birth of 9-10 cm between the two extreme birth length subgroups remains, on average, until maturity. This seems to be true for the two study populations with different degrees of socio-economic development. However, the rate of catch-up growth is highly dependent on the definition of SGA, on the rate of catch-up growth in early life and on the incidence of growth faltering between 6 and 18 months of age.
A total of 47 prepubertal children with hGH deficiency were treated for up to 6 months with recombinant somatropin. All the children markedly increased their growth rate; 21 of them were naïve (not previously treated with hGH), and increased their growth rate from 4.2 +/- 0.2 cm/year to 13.9 +/- 0.9 cm/year (calculated from growth data after 6 months' treatment, n = 11). Of the 47 children, 26 had been previously treated for 2 +/- 0.3 years (range 0.3-8.3 years) with pituitary hGH. After a period of 0.9 +/- 0.03 years (range 5-15 months) without any hGH therapy, their growth rate increased from 2.9 cm/year to 11.1 cm/year on recombinant somatropin therapy (calculated from growth data after 6 months' treatment, n = 10). One child reacted with temporary local erythema at the injection site. Anti-hGH antibodies, with a binding capacity of 0.02 mg/litre, were detected in 1 of the 16 children after 6 months of therapy. No adverse effect on her growth rate was seen. No changes in levels of antibodies to Escherichia coli proteins were detected. No other allergic manifestations or systemic side-effects were demonstrable.
This paper reports results from an ongoing, randomized, multicentre national trial. The aim is to elucidate whether a dose of growth hormone (GH) of 0.2 IU/kg (0.07 mg/kg), given either as once-daily or twice-daily injections during puberty, is more effective than a once-daily dose of 0.1 IU/kg/day (0.03 mg/kg/day) in improving final height in children with GH deficiency (GHD). The twice-daily regimen comes closer to the spontaneous GH secretion pattern in puberty. Ninety-two children with GHD who had been receiving GH therapy for at least 1 year, and with spontaneous puberty or who were prepubertal and due to be started on replacement therapy to induce puberty, were randomly assigned to receive GH as follows: group A, 0.1 IU/kg/day (0.03 mg/kg/day), administered once daily; group B, 0.2 IU/kg/day (0.07 mg/kg/day), administered once daily; and group C, 0.2 IU/kg/day (0.07 mg/kg/day), divided into two equal injections given at 12-hour intervals. Pubertal height gain was 0.7, 0.7 and 1.3 SDS for groups A, B and C, respectively. The gain in height during puberty was thus most marked in group C. Mean final height, when corrected for parental height, was between 0 and 1 SDS in all treatment groups. All but seven children reached a final height within +/- 2 SD of the general population. There was a wide range of final heights in all three treatment groups. This variation in response suggests the need to individualize treatment in order to achieve an appropriate final height for most individuals.
BACKGROUND: Girls adopted from developing countries often have early or precocious puberty, requiring treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues. During such treatment, decreased growth velocity is frequent. AIM: To study whether the addition of growth hormone (GH) to GnRH analogue treatment improves final height in girls with early or precocious puberty. METHODS: Forty-six girls with early or precocious puberty (age
Final height was evaluated in 369 patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) enrolled in KIGS--the Pharmacia & Upjohn International Growth Database. At the start of growth hormone (GH) therapy, the patients were 9.8 years of age, their mid-parental height SDS was -0.8, and their height SDS was -3.1. Of the 369 patients, 50% had multiple hormone deficiencies, and puberty was induced in 31%. Patients were 18 years of age at completion of GH therapy, and had received GH at a dose of 0.49 IU/kg/week (0.16 mg/kg/week), with a mean of 5.2 injections/week for 8.1 years. Final height SDS was -1.5, final minus initial height SDS was 1.7 and final minus mid-parental height SDS was -0.5. A Swedish subgroup (n = 69) received conventional GH therapy throughout at 0.65 IU/kg/week (0.22 mg/kg/week), with seven injections/week for a mean of 9.4 years. These patients achieved their genetic potential (final minus mid-parental height SDS, 0.03), with a normal final height SDS of -0.3. For the total group, the following variables were associated with final height: mid-parental height SDS (r = 0.62), injection frequency (r = 0.37), duration of GH treatment (r = 0.28), peak stimulated GH concentration (r = -0.25), age (r = -0.19) (all p
The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of different doses of growth hormone (GH) treatment in prepubertal short children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Forty-eight children born SGA from Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway were randomly allocated to three groups: a control group of 12 children received no treatment for 2 y, one group was treated with GH at 0.1 IU/kg/d (n=16), and one group was treated with GH at 0.2 IU/kg/d (n=20). In total 42 children completed 2 y of follow-up, and 24 children from the treated groups completed 3 y of treatment. Their mean (SD) age at the start of the study was 4.69 (1.61) y and their mean (SD) height was -3.16 (0.70) standard deviation scores (SDS). The children remained prepubertal during the course of the study. No catch-up growth was observed in the untreated group, but a clear dose-dependent growth response was found in the treated children. After the third year of treatment, the group receiving the higher dose of GH, achieved their target height. The major determinants of the growth response were the dose of GH used, the age at the start of treatment (the younger the child, the better the growth response) and the family-corrected individual height deficit (the higher the deficit, the better the growth response). Concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 increased during treatment. An increase in insulin levels was found without negative effects on fasting glucose levels or glycosylated haemoglobin levels. GH treatment was well tolerated. In conclusion, short prepubertal children born SGA show a dose-dependent growth response to GH therapy, and their target height SDS can be achieved within 3 y of treatment given GH at 0.2 IU/kg/d. However, the long-term benefit of different regimens of GH treatment in children born SGA remains to be established.