Casual blood pressures were recorded in 331 Lapps and 221 Skolts over the age of 20. The systolic pressure was found to rise more with age in women than in men. In neither sex did age affect the diastolic pressure. A general tendency towards higher blood pressure in Lapps than in Skolts was noted up to the age of 50-60 years. Comparison with a Finnish population and one from the Aland Islands revealed similar systolic blood pressures in females, but definitely lower values in male Lapps and Skolts. The Lapps and Skolts did not have the clear age dependence of the diastolic blood pressure as occurs in Finns. These findings, together with other population studies, support the hypothesis that the setting of the resting blood pressure level is influenced by different kinds of stress associated with technological development and with an urbanized way of life.
This paper presents a comparison between Czech and Norwegian rural healthy children with regard to the functional characteristics of the circulatory and respiratory system based upon work physiological variables and measurements of some pulmonary volumes. The study included randomised samples of boys and girls at the age of 8, 12 and 16 years, 66 Czech boys and 63 girls, 54 Norwegian boys and 57 girls. At the age of 8 years the maximal aerobic power was closely similar in both countries, but in the older age groups the Norwegian children exhibited lower physical fitness. The maximal heart rate was close to 200 min-1 on the average without any sex, age or ethnic differences. In agreement with the higher maximal aerobic power the 12 and 16 year old Czech children had lower submaximal heart rates for the same oxygen uptake than the Norwegian children. The forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second was significantly higher on the average in Czech than in Norwegian children but the latter, expressed in percent age of the former, averaged 87 to 91% without any sex, age or ethnic differences. The maximal ventilation volumes during muscular exercise reached higher values in Czech than in Norwegian children of the same age, but the mean maximal respiratory rate was close to 60 min-1, being independent of age, sex and cultural differences. During heavy exercise only 40 to 50% of the vital capacity and 45 to 55% of the forced expiratory volume were taken into account and this index of pulmonary function did not differ with sex, age or ethnic differences.
The paper provides reference values with regard to pulmonary ventilation responses o progressively increasing bicycling up to the maximal level during the period of growth spurt. Data are based on longitudinal studies or rural Norwegian and German school children. A cluster sampling technique was used, starting with the total pupil-population at Lom in Norway at an age of 8 years, and annual tests were performed until the age of 15 years. In germany a similar pupil-population was tested from age 12 until age 17 years. Functional growth curves giving means and dispersions for ventilation rates, tidal volume, respiratory frequency, ventilatory equivalent and respiratory gas exchange ratio are constructed. Norwegian and German children's developmental processes with regard to the exercise ventilation variables were compared, and revealed no significant differences.
Health standard in terms of maximal aerobic power has been assessed in representative samples of school children in four European countries, with the object of testing the hypothesis that factors associated with the present days urbanization hamper the developmental process. In Norway and Iceland the exercise fitness of urban living children was stronger than that of children living in scarcely populated areas. In West Germany and Czechoslovakia there appeared a tendency in the same direction though the health standard in some ages was similar for urban and rural living children. The conclusion is consequently clear in as much as no evidence was found that supports the widespread concept that urbanization affects the exercise fitness during growth. On the contrary, urban living seems to enhance the developmental process most likely because the urbanized society stimulates children to vigorous play and sport, thus increasing habitual physical activity. Children living in rural environment become socially isolated, adopt sedentary living habits which subsequently hamper the development of functional characteristics. The maximal aerobic power of the boys and girls in these four European countries was similar when compared on basis on where they are living (urban/rural) except for the Norwegian boys who were considerably superior to the others.
This report gives results of a longitudinal study of two cohorts of school children in Norway and West-Germany. The rate of growth in body size and composition is identical for the two samples, but different for the two sexes, and follows closely the trend of growth which has been found for North-Europeans in general. Despite of this similarity in growth of anatomical variables the Norwegian children appeared to be superior in their maximum aerobic power at all comparable ages and in both sexes. The differences between means in maximal oxygen uptake varies somewhat with age and sex and are in the range of 5-10%. It is suggested that the mean differences between Norwegian and German children in their exercise and cardio-vascular fitness are brought about by a more physically active behavioural pattern of living in Norway.