OBJECTIVES: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 20% of total lung cancer, and systemic chemotherapy is the major therapy for all stages of SCLC. Although most SCLC patients are characterized by initial chemosensitivity to the standard first-line platinum-based regimens, a significant fraction of patients are intrinsic nonresponders. METHODS: Genome-wide scan of 440 093 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted using peripheral blood DNA to identify variants associated with response to first-line carboplatin or cisplatin plus etoposide chemotherapy in 245 patients with SCLC and the results were replicated in another set of 183 patients. RESULTS: By set association analysis, 20 SNPs were identified to be associated with treatment response, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) ranging from 2.36 (1.56-3.57) to 4.38 (2.12-9.29) and these results were confirmed in the replication phase. Most of these SNPs (14/20) were clustered on chromosomes 22p11.23, 6q24.3, and 20p12.2 containing BTBD3, STXBP5, and BCR genes. CONCLUSION: Germline genetic variations influence the effectiveness of platinum-based chemotherapy of SCLC and further studies are needed to test the value of these findings for personalized chemotherapy.
The mu-opioid receptor (MOR), through its effects on reward and stress-responsivity, modulates alcohol intake in both animal and human laboratory studies. We have previously demonstrated that the frequently occurring A118G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 1 of the MORgene (OPRM1), which encodes an amino-acid substitution, is functional and receptors encoded by the variant 118G allele bind the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin with three-fold greater affinity than prototype receptors. Other groups subsequently reported that this variant alters stress-responsivity in normal volunteers and also increases the therapeutic response to naltrexone (a mu-preferring opioid antagonist) in the treatment of alcohol dependence. We compared frequencies of genotypes containing an 118G allele in 389 alcohol-dependent individuals and 170 population-based controls without drug or alcohol abuse or dependence. The A118G SNP was present in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with an overall frequency of the 118G allele of 10.9%. There was a significant overall association between genotypes with an 118G allele and alcohol dependence (p=0.0074). The attributable risk for alcohol dependence in subjects with an 118G allele was 11.1%. There was no difference in A118G genotype between type 1 and type 2 alcoholics. In central Sweden, the functional variant 118G allele in exon 1 of OPRM1 is associated with an increased attributable risk for alcohol dependence.
In the first linkage study on LDD, a common musculoskeletal disorder, a genome-wide scan was performed on 14 Finnish families. The analysis resulted in identification of a putative susceptibility locus for the disease on chromosome 21.
Lumbar disc disease (LDD) is a common musculoskeletal disorder that affects approximately 5% of the adult population. Several predisposing genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified for symptomatic LDD (i.e., symptomatic disc herniation and/or sciatic pain), but thus far, no common cause has been identified.
Medical history data were collected from 186 members of 14 Finnish families with LDD.
A genome-wide scan resulted in 10 chromosomal regions providing LOD scores >1, and in fine mapping, maximum two-point LOD scores of 2.71, 2.36, and 2.04 were obtained for chromosomes 21 (D21S1257), 4 (D4S399), and 6 (D6S294), respectively. A second fine mapping confirmed the susceptibility of chromosome 21 with a two-point LOD score of 2.06 (D21S1922). In addition, a significant association between LDD and SNP rs716195 was observed (p5.5 cM and contains several interesting genes for further analysis.
Migraine is a complex neurovascular disorder with substantial evidence supporting a genetic contribution. Prior attempts to localize susceptibility loci for common forms of migraine have not produced conclusive evidence of linkage or association. To date, no genomewide screen for migraine has been published. We report results from a genomewide screen of 50 multigenerational, clinically well-defined Finnish families showing intergenerational transmission of migraine with aura (MA). The families were screened using 350 polymorphic microsatellite markers, with an average intermarker distance of 11 cM. Significant evidence of linkage was found between the MA phenotype and marker D4S1647 on 4q24. Using parametric two-point linkage analysis and assuming a dominant mode of inheritance, we found for this marker a maximum LOD score of 4.20 under locus homogeneity (P=.000006) or locus heterogeneity (P=.000011). Multipoint parametric (HLOD = 4.45; P=.0000058) and nonparametric (NPL(all) = 3.43; P=.0007) analyses support linkage in this region. Statistically significant linkage was not observed in any other chromosomal region.
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