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Active tuberculosis among homeless persons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998-2007.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136298
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Mar;17(3):357-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Kamran Khan
Elizabeth Rea
Cameron McDermaid
Rebecca Stuart
Catharine Chambers
Jun Wang
Angie Chan
Michael Gardam
Frances Jamieson
Jae Yang
Stephen W Hwang
Author Affiliation
St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. khank@smh.ca
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Mar;17(3):357-65
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Female
Homeless Persons - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Risk factors
Tuberculosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Abstract
While tuberculosis (TB) in Canadian cities is increasingly affecting foreign-born persons, homeless persons remain at high risk. To assess trends in TB, we studied all homeless persons in Toronto who had a diagnosis of active TB during 1998-2007. We compared Canada-born and foreign-born homeless persons and assessed changes over time. We identified 91 homeless persons with active TB; they typically had highly contagious, advanced disease, and 19% died within 12 months of diagnosis. The proportion of homeless persons who were foreign-born increased from 24% in 1998-2002 to 39% in 2003-2007. Among foreign-born homeless persons with TB, 56% of infections were caused by strains not known to circulate among homeless persons in Toronto. Only 2% of infections were resistant to first-line TB medications. The rise in foreign-born homeless persons with TB strains likely acquired overseas suggests that the risk for drug-resistant strains entering the homeless shelter system may be escalating.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21392424 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98088
Source
Nature. 2010 Feb 11;463(7282):757-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-11-2010
Author
Morten Rasmussen
Yingrui Li
Stinus Lindgreen
Jakob Skou Pedersen
Anders Albrechtsen
Ida Moltke
Mait Metspalu
Ene Metspalu
Toomas Kivisild
Ramneek Gupta
Marcelo Bertalan
Kasper Nielsen
M Thomas P Gilbert
Yong Wang
Maanasa Raghavan
Paula F Campos
Hanne Munkholm Kamp
Andrew S Wilson
Andrew Gledhill
Silvana Tridico
Michael Bunce
Eline D Lorenzen
Jonas Binladen
Xiaosen Guo
Jing Zhao
Xiuqing Zhang
Hao Zhang
Zhuo Li
Minfeng Chen
Ludovic Orlando
Karsten Kristiansen
Mads Bak
Niels Tommerup
Christian Bendixen
Tracey L Pierre
Bjarne Grønnow
Morten Meldgaard
Claus Andreasen
Sardana A Fedorova
Ludmila P Osipova
Thomas F G Higham
Christopher Bronk Ramsey
Thomas V O Hansen
Finn C Nielsen
Michael H Crawford
Søren Brunak
Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén
Richard Villems
Rasmus Nielsen
Anders Krogh
Jun Wang
Eske Willerslev
Author Affiliation
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark and Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Nature. 2010 Feb 11;463(7282):757-62
Date
Feb-11-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cryopreservation
Emigration and Immigration - history
Extinction, Biological
Genetics, Population
Genome, Human - genetics
Genomics
Genotype
Greenland
Hair
History, Ancient
Humans
Inuits - genetics
Male
Phenotype
Phylogeny
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Siberia - ethnology
Abstract
We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from approximately 4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20x, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing technologies. We identify 353,151 high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 6.8% have not been reported previously. We estimate raw read contamination to be no higher than 0.8%. We use functional SNP assessment to assign possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.
Notes
RefSource: Nature. 2010 Feb 11;463(7282):739-40
PubMed ID
20148029 View in PubMed
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A common Greenlandic TBC1D4 variant confers muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102987
Source
Nature. 2014 Aug 14;512(7513):190-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-14-2014
Author
Ida Moltke
Niels Grarup
Marit E Jørgensen
Peter Bjerregaard
Jonas T Treebak
Matteo Fumagalli
Thorfinn S Korneliussen
Marianne A Andersen
Thomas S Nielsen
Nikolaj T Krarup
Anette P Gjesing
Juleen R Zierath
Allan Linneberg
Xueli Wu
Guangqing Sun
Xin Jin
Jumana Al-Aama
Jun Wang
Knut Borch-Johnsen
Oluf Pedersen
Rasmus Nielsen
Anders Albrechtsen
Torben Hansen
Author Affiliation
1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [3].
Source
Nature. 2014 Aug 14;512(7513):190-3
Date
Aug-14-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - analysis
Codon, Nonsense - genetics
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
GTPase-Activating Proteins - genetics
Gene Frequency
Genetic Variation
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genotype
Greenland
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance - genetics
Middle Aged
Muscle, Skeletal - metabolism
Abstract
The Greenlandic population, a small and historically isolated founder population comprising about 57,000 inhabitants, has experienced a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence during the past 25 years. Motivated by this, we performed association mapping of T2D-related quantitative traits in up to 2,575 Greenlandic individuals without known diabetes. Using array-based genotyping and exome sequencing, we discovered a nonsense p.Arg684Ter variant (in which arginine is replaced by a termination codon) in the gene TBC1D4 with an allele frequency of 17%. Here we show that homozygous carriers of this variant have markedly higher concentrations of plasma glucose (ß = 3.8?mmol?l(-1), P = 2.5?×?10(-35)) and serum insulin (ß = 165?pmol?l(-1), P = 1.5?×?10(-20)) 2 hours after an oral glucose load compared with individuals with other genotypes (both non-carriers and heterozygous carriers). Furthermore, homozygous carriers have marginally lower concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (ß = -0.18 mmol?l(-1), P = 1.1?×?10(-6)) and fasting serum insulin (ß = -8.3?pmol?l(-1), P = 0.0014), and their T2D risk is markedly increased (odds ratio (OR) = 10.3, P = 1.6?×?10(-24)). Heterozygous carriers have a moderately higher plasma glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose load than non-carriers (ß = 0.43?mmol?l(-1), P = 5.3?×?10(-5)). Analyses of skeletal muscle biopsies showed lower messenger RNA and protein levels of the long isoform of TBC1D4, and lower muscle protein levels of the glucose transporter GLUT4, with increasing number of p.Arg684Ter alleles. These findings are concomitant with a severely decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle, leading to postprandial hyperglycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and T2D. The observed effect sizes are several times larger than any previous findings in large-scale genome-wide association studies of these traits and constitute further proof of the value of conducting genetic association studies outside the traditional setting of large homogeneous populations.
PubMed ID
25043022 View in PubMed
Less detail

Design of association studies with pooled or un-pooled next-generation sequencing data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142821
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 2010 Jul;34(5):479-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Su Yeon Kim
Yingrui Li
Yiran Guo
Ruiqiang Li
Johan Holmkvist
Torben Hansen
Oluf Pedersen
Jun Wang
Rasmus Nielsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Integrative Biology, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. suyeonkim@berkeley.edu
Source
Genet Epidemiol. 2010 Jul;34(5):479-91
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alleles
Chromosome Mapping - economics - methods
Computer simulation
Denmark
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genetic Variation
Genetics, Population - economics - methods
Genome-Wide Association Study - economics - methods
Genotype
Humans
Models, Genetic
Models, Statistical
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Research Design
Sequence Analysis, DNA - economics - methods
Abstract
Most common hereditary diseases in humans are complex and multifactorial. Large-scale genome-wide association studies based on SNP genotyping have only identified a small fraction of the heritable variation of these diseases. One explanation may be that many rare variants (a minor allele frequency, MAF
PubMed ID
20552648 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269806
Source
Cell Host Microbe. 2015 May 13;17(5):690-703
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-13-2015
Author
Fredrik Bäckhed
Josefine Roswall
Yangqing Peng
Qiang Feng
Huijue Jia
Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary
Yin Li
Yan Xia
Hailiang Xie
Huanzi Zhong
Muhammad Tanweer Khan
Jianfeng Zhang
Junhua Li
Liang Xiao
Jumana Al-Aama
Dongya Zhang
Ying Shiuan Lee
Dorota Kotowska
Camilla Colding
Valentina Tremaroli
Ye Yin
Stefan Bergman
Xun Xu
Lise Madsen
Karsten Kristiansen
Jovanna Dahlgren
Jun Wang
Wang Jun
Source
Cell Host Microbe. 2015 May 13;17(5):690-703
Date
May-13-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast Feeding
Delivery, Obstetric - methods
Feces - microbiology
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Gastrointestinal Tract - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Metagenomics
Microbiota
Molecular Sequence Data
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sweden
Abstract
The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first year of life and assessed the impact of mode of delivery and feeding on its establishment. In contrast to vaginally delivered infants, the gut microbiota of infants delivered by C-section showed significantly less resemblance to their mothers. Nutrition had a major impact on early microbiota composition and function, with cessation of breast-feeding, rather than introduction of solid food, being required for maturation into an adult-like microbiota. Microbiota composition and ecological network had distinctive features at each sampled stage, in accordance with functional maturation of the microbiome. Our findings establish a framework for understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and the human body in early life.
Notes
Comment In: Cell Host Microbe. 2015 May 13;17(5):543-425974295
Erratum In: Cell Host Microbe. 2015 Jun 10;17(6):85226308884
Erratum In: Cell Host Microbe. 2015 Jun 10;17(6):852Jun, Wang [corrected to Wang, Jun]
PubMed ID
25974306 View in PubMed
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Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113198
Source
PLoS Genet. 2013 Jun;9(6):e1003530
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Niels Grarup
Patrick Sulem
Camilla H Sandholt
Gudmar Thorleifsson
Tarunveer S Ahluwalia
Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir
Helgi Bjarnason
Daniel F Gudbjartsson
Olafur T Magnusson
Thomas Sparsø
Anders Albrechtsen
Augustine Kong
Gisli Masson
Geng Tian
Hongzhi Cao
Chao Nie
Karsten Kristiansen
Lise Lotte Husemoen
Betina Thuesen
Yingrui Li
Rasmus Nielsen
Allan Linneberg
Isleifur Olafsson
Gudmundur I Eyjolfsson
Torben Jørgensen
Jun Wang
Torben Hansen
Unnur Thorsteinsdottir
Kari Stefánsson
Oluf Pedersen
Author Affiliation
The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
PLoS Genet. 2013 Jun;9(6):e1003530
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alzheimer Disease - genetics - metabolism
Denmark
Exome
Folic Acid - blood - metabolism
Folic Acid Deficiency - genetics - metabolism
Genome, Human
Genome-Wide Association Study
Humans
Iceland
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) - genetics
Quantitative Trait Loci
Vitamin B 12 - blood - metabolism
Abstract
Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B(12) (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B(12) and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B(12) (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B(12) and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B(12) or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23754956 View in PubMed
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Historical records and contamination assessment of potential toxic elements (PTEs) over the past 100 years in Ny-Ă…lesund, Svalbard.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305231
Source
Environ Pollut. 2020 Nov; 266(Pt 1):115205
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2020
Author
Zhongkang Yang
Linxi Yuan
Zhouqing Xie
Jun Wang
Zhaolei Li
Luyao Tu
Liguang Sun
Author Affiliation
Institute of Polar Environment & Anhui Key Laboratory of Polar Environment and Global Change, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China; College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271000, China.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2020 Nov; 266(Pt 1):115205
Date
Nov-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Risk assessment
Soil
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Svalbard
Abstract
Ny-Ålesund has been significantly impacted by anthropogenic activities (e.g. coal mining, scientific research, tourist shipping) over the past 100 years. However, the studies of potential toxic elements (PTEs) contamination in Ny-Ålesund currently mainly focus on surface soil or surface fjord sediments, and little is known about the history and status of PTEs contamination over the past 100 years. In this study, we collected a palaeo-notch sediment profile YN, analyzed the contents of six typical PTEs (Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Se) in the sediments, and assessed the historical pollution status in Ny-Ålesund using the pollution load index, geo-accumulation index and enrichment factor. The results showed that the contents of PTEs over the past 100 years increased rapidly compared with those during the interval of 9400-100 BP. In addition, Pb, Cd and Hg showed a clear signal of enrichment and were the main polluters among the PTEs analyzed. The contamination was likely linked to gas-oil powered generators, coal mining, research station, tourist shipping and long-range transport of pollutants.
PubMed ID
32707354 View in PubMed
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A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145064
Source
Nature. 2010 Mar 4;464(7285):59-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-4-2010
Author
Junjie Qin
Ruiqiang Li
Jeroen Raes
Manimozhiyan Arumugam
Kristoffer Solvsten Burgdorf
Chaysavanh Manichanh
Trine Nielsen
Nicolas Pons
Florence Levenez
Takuji Yamada
Daniel R Mende
Junhua Li
Junming Xu
Shaochuan Li
Dongfang Li
Jianjun Cao
Bo Wang
Huiqing Liang
Huisong Zheng
Yinlong Xie
Julien Tap
Patricia Lepage
Marcelo Bertalan
Jean-Michel Batto
Torben Hansen
Denis Le Paslier
Allan Linneberg
H Bjørn Nielsen
Eric Pelletier
Pierre Renault
Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten
Keith Turner
Hongmei Zhu
Chang Yu
Shengting Li
Min Jian
Yan Zhou
Yingrui Li
Xiuqing Zhang
Songgang Li
Nan Qin
Huanming Yang
Jian Wang
Søren Brunak
Joel Doré
Francisco Guarner
Karsten Kristiansen
Oluf Pedersen
Julian Parkhill
Jean Weissenbach
Peer Bork
S Dusko Ehrlich
Jun Wang
Author Affiliation
BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China.
Source
Nature. 2010 Mar 4;464(7285):59-65
Date
Mar-4-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bacteria - classification - genetics - isolation & purification - metabolism
Cohort Studies
Contig Mapping
Denmark
Feces - microbiology
Gastrointestinal Tract - microbiology
Genes, Bacterial - genetics
Genes, Essential - genetics
Genome, Bacterial - genetics
Genomics
Health
Humans
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - genetics
Metagenome - genetics
Obesity - genetics
Open Reading Frames - genetics
Overweight - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Spain
Abstract
To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, approximately 150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent (more frequent) microbial genes of the cohort and probably includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20203603 View in PubMed
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Impact of the patient-provider relationship on the survival of foreign born outpatients with tuberculosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153300
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2009 Dec;11(6):437-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Michael Gardam
Geetika Verma
Ann Campbell
Jun Wang
Kamran Khan
Author Affiliation
Division of Infectious Diseases, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2009 Dec;11(6):437-45
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Canada
Cohort Studies
Communication Barriers
Directly Observed Therapy - statistics & numerical data
Emigrants and Immigrants
Female
HIV Infections - complications
Health status
Humans
Language
Male
Middle Aged
Professional-Patient Relations
Retrospective Studies
Sex Factors
Survival Analysis
Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant - drug therapy - mortality
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - complications - drug therapy - mortality
Abstract
Managing tuberculosis in foreign born patients entails a complex interaction between patient and provider.
Using a retrospective cohort study and survival analysis, this study evaluates the impact of patient and provider factors on the survival of foreign born outpatients with active tuberculosis. The primary outcome of the study is 1 year all-cause mortality.
In our cohort, patient-provider language discordance was associated with an increased risk of death [HR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.39-3.88], while receiving treatment from a tuberculosis experienced physician [HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.22-0.77] and treatment in a dedicated tuberculosis clinic [HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.29-0.98] was associated with a lower risk of death.
Patient-provider communication and health systems factors played a large role in the survival of our cohort of foreign born tuberculosis outpatients. These findings suggest that language barriers and the provision of care by experienced providers in specialized clinic settings may have important effects on health outcomes.
PubMed ID
19127431 View in PubMed
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The metabolic syndrome defined by factor analysis and incident type 2 diabetes in a chinese population with high postprandial glucose.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178190
Source
Diabetes Care. 2004 Oct;27(10):2429-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Jian-Jun Wang
Qing Qiao
Maija E Miettinen
Jani Lappalainen
Gang Hu
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Author Affiliation
Diabetes and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, KTL/GE-Lab, Kytosuontie 11, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland. jianjun.wang@ktl.fi
Source
Diabetes Care. 2004 Oct;27(10):2429-37
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anthropometry
Asian Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Blood Glucose - analysis
Case-Control Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - diagnosis - epidemiology
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Mass Screening
Metabolic Syndrome X - diagnosis - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Postprandial Period
Probability
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine how the major components of the metabolic syndrome relate to each other and to the development of diabetes using factor analysis.
The screening survey for type 2 diabetes was conducted in 1994, and a follow-up study of nondiabetic individuals at baseline was carried out in 1999 in the Beijing area. Among 934 nondiabetic and 305 diabetic subjects at baseline, factor analysis was performed using the principle components analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation of continuously distributed variables considered to represent the components of the metabolic syndrome. Fasting insulin was used as a marker for insulin resistance. Of the 559 subjects without diabetes at baseline, 129 developed diabetes during the 5-year follow-up. Factors identified at baseline were used as independent variables in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to determine risk factor clusters predicting the development of diabetes.
Four factors were identified in nondiabetic and diabetic subjects. Fasting insulin levels, BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio were associated with one factor. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were associated with the second factor. Two-hour postload plasma glucose (2-h PG) and serum insulin and fasting plasma glucose were associated with the third factor. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were associated with the fourth factor. The first and the third factors predicted the development of diabetes. In diabetic patients at baseline, the combination of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was the most important factor, and urinary albumin excretion rate clustered with fasting and 2-h PG levels.
Insulin resistance alone does not underlie all features of the metabolic syndrome. Different physiological processes associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome contain unique information about diabetes risk. Microalbunuria is more likely to be a complication of type 2 diabetes or hypertension than a marker for the metabolic syndrome.
PubMed ID
15451912 View in PubMed
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