The E-cadherin (CDH1) gene has been associated with prostate carcinogenesis. The C/A polymorphism--160 base pairs relative to the transcription start site has been shown to decrease gene transcription. We analyzed the association between this polymorphism and the risk of sporadic, familial (2 close relatives) and hereditary (3 or more close relatives) prostate cancer. We combined data from 3 population-based epidemiologic studies in Sweden encompassing altogether 1,036 prostate cancer cases and 669 controls that were genotyped for the short nucleotide polymorphism. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated through unconditional logistic regression. We found no significant association between the A-allele and sporadic (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2) or familial (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.9-2.2) prostate cancer. In contrast, risk of hereditary cancer was increased among heterozygote CA carriers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.0-2.7) and particularly among homozygote AA carriers (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.4-4.9). Our data indicate that the -160 single nucleotide polymorphism in CDH1 is a low-penetrant prostate cancer susceptibility gene that might explain a proportion of familial and notably hereditary prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to antineoplastic drugs should be avoided due to the risk of getting adverse health effects. Antineoplastic drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) are commonly used in medical attendance. In this study the variability of surface contamination of CP and IF was investigated by repeated wipe sampling over time in four workplaces in a university hospital. The surface contamination levels were also evaluated and health care workers were biologically monitored. METHODS: A hospital pharmacy, two oncology wards and one oncology outpatient department were selected. Between 10 and 13 different surface areas such as work areas, floors and handles were selected in each workplace and wiped between 7 and 8 times during 9 months. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from the workers in the investigated workplaces. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Measurable amounts of CP and IF were detected on the majority of the sampled surfaces. The highest concentrations were found on the floors in the patient lavatories and utility rooms (up to 95 ng cm(-2)). In general, the surface contamination of CP and IF on floors did not vary much over time. Work areas and handles had larger variability. Neither CP nor IF were detected in any of the collected urine samples. CONCLUSIONS: The variability in surface contamination of CP and IF was rather low especially on floors. Higher concentrations of CP and IF were found on the floors compared with the work areas. The highest surface loads were found on floors (in patient lavatories and utility rooms) that were related to patient activities such as handling of patients' urine. Although high contaminations were found, the biological monitoring showed no uptake. Wipe sampling is a good method to improve the work practices.
Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are suspected to interfere with hormone activity and the normal homeostasis of spermatogenesis. We investigated the relationships between sperm DNA fragmentation, apoptotic markers identified on ejaculated spermatozoa and POP levels in the blood of 652 adult males (200 Inuits from Greenland, 166 Swedish, 134 Polish and 152 Ukrainian). Serum levels of 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), as a proxy of the total POP burden, and of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE), as a proxy of the total DDT exposure were determined. Sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by using the TUNEL assay, whereas immunofluorescence methods were utilized for detecting pro-apoptotic (Fas) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-xL) markers. Both TUNEL assay and apoptotic markers were statistically differed across the four populations. No correlation between neither sperm DNA fragmentation nor apoptotic sperm parameters and the large variations in POPs exposure was observed for the separate study groups. However, considering the European populations taken together, we showed that both %TUNEL positivity and Bcl-xL were related to CB-153 serum levels, whereas our study failed to demonstrate any relations between DDE and %TUNEL positivity and apoptotic sperm biomarkers (Fas and Bcl-xL) in any region or overall regions. These results suggest that CB-153 and related chemicals might alter sperm DNA integrity and Bcl-xL levels in European adult males, but not in the highly exposed Inuit men. Additional issues (genetic background, lifestyle habits and characterization of total xeno-hormonal activities) need to be investigated in order to fully assess the population variations observed.
Workplaces, e.g. hospital pharmacies and hospital departments, where antineoplastic drugs are handled might be contaminated with these drugs, and pharmacy personnel and health care workers may be exposed. In this study potential sources for exposure of antineoplastic drugs were investigated. Unbroken drug vials and tablet blister packages, both containing cyclophosphamide (CP) and their outer packaging were wipe sampled. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The result showed that almost every part of the primary packaging was contaminated with CP and ifosfamide (IF). However, the amounts of CP and IF were low, and most likely not harmful for the personnel handling these packaging in association with drug preparation. The contamination must originate from the pharmaceutical manufacturer. Different surfaces in the preparation unit of a Swedish hospital pharmacy were also investigated at two different occasions by wipe sampling. In the preparation unit CP and IF were found as contaminants on the majority of the investigated surfaces. After the first measurement the hospital pharmacy improved its routines. Lower amounts of CP and IF were detected at the second measurement. A low degree of contamination with CP and IF was also detected on the floor outside the preparation unit and this indicated a small distribution of antineoplastic drugs to the surroundings.
The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes in 1-18-year-old patients with type 1 diabetes newly diagnosed in 1986-1987 (n = 430), 1996-2000 (n = 342) and in 2003-2005 (n = 171). We tested the hypothesis that the HLA DQ genotype distribution changes over time. Swedish type 1 diabetes patients and controls were typed for HLA using polymerase chain reaction amplification and allele specific probes for DQ A1* and B1* alleles. The most common type 1 diabetes HLA DQA1*-B1*genotype 0501-0201/0301-0302 was 36% (153/430) in 1986-1987 and 37% (127/342) in 1996-2000, but decreased to 19% (33/171) in 2003-2005 (P \ 0.0001). The 0501-0201/0501-0201 genotype increased from 1% in 1986-1987 to 7% in 1996-2000 (P = 0.0047) and to 5% in 2003-2005 (P > 0.05). This study in 1-18-year-old Swedish type 1 diabetes patients supports the notion that there is a temporal change in HLA risk.