The genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC) has been estimated to be around 35% and yet high-penetrance germline mutations found so far explain less than 5% of all cases. Much of the remaining variations could be due to the co-inheritance of multiple low penetrant variants. The identification of all the susceptibility alleles could have public health relevance in the near future. To test the hypothesis that what are considered polymorphisms in human CRC genes could constitute low-risk alleles, we selected eight common SNPs for a pilot association study in 1785 cases and 1722 controls. One SNP, rs3219489:G>C (MUTYH Q324H) seemed to confer an increased risk of rectal cancer in homozygous status (OR=1.52; CI=1.06-2.17). When the analysis was restricted to our 'super-controls', healthy individuals with no family history for cancer, also rs1799977:A>G (MLH1 I219V) was associated with an increased risk in both colon and rectum patients with an odds ratio of 1.28 (CI=1.02-1.60) and 1.34 (CI=1.05-1.72), respectively (under the dominant model); while 2 SNPs, rs1800932:A>G (MSH6 P92P) and rs459552:T>A (APC D1822V) seemed to confer a protective effect. The latter, in particular showed an odds ratio of 0.76 (CI=0.60-0.97) among colon patients and 0.73 (CI=0.56-0.95) among rectal patients. In conclusion, our study suggests that common variants in human CRC genes could constitute low-risk alleles.
Several studies have shown excess risk for a number of comorbidities in patients with psoriasis compared with the general population, but data on cause-specific mortality in this patient population are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of psoriasis and 12 specific causes of death and all-cause mortality in patients with mild and severe psoriasis. The study was based on data from Swedish administrative registers and compared the risk of death in 39,074 patients with psoriasis with 154,775 sex-, age- and residency-matched referents using Cox proportional hazards models. In patients with mild and severe psoriasis, the strongest associations were observed for deaths due to kidney disease (hazard ratio [HR]=2.20, p?
The main objective of this study was to describe real-world treatment persistence with subcutaneous tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (SC-TNFi) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis [collectively immune-mediated rheumatic disease, (IMRD)] in Sweden. A secondary objective was to describe potential effects on health care resource utilization (HCRU) cost from non-persistence. Patients were identified through filled prescriptions for adalimumab (ADA), etanercept (ETA), certolizumab pegol (CZP), and golimumab (GLM) between 5/6/2010 and 12/31/2012 from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Persistence was estimated using survival analysis. Costs were derived from HCRU and comprised specialized outpatient care, inpatient care and non-disease-modifying antirheumatic drug medications. A total of 4903 patients were identified (ADA: 1823, ETA: 1704, CZP: 622, GLM: 754). Comparisons over 3 years showed that GLM had significantly higher persistence than ADA (p = 0.022) and ETA (p = 0.004). The mean difference in non-biologic HCRU costs between persistent and non-persistent patients was higher after compared to before the start of biologic therapy. SC-TNFi-naïve IMRD patients initiating treatment with GLM had significantly higher persistence rates than patients initiating treatment with ADA or ETA in Sweden. Furthermore, persistence rates observed in the study were lower than those observed in clinical trials, highlighting the need for an all-party (provider-patient-payer-drug manufacturer) engagement and development of programs to increase persistence rates in clinical practice, thus leading to improved clinical outcomes. In addition, the results of this study indicate that persistence to treatment with SC-TNFi may be associated with cost offsets in terms of non-biologic costs.