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Are impaired childhood motor skills a risk factor for adolescent anxiety? Results from the 1958 U.K. birth cohort and the National Child Development Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31540
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Jun;159(6):1044-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
Engilbert Sigurdsson
Jim Van Os
Eric Fombonne
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Lanspitali-University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. engilbs@landspitali.is
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Jun;159(6):1044-6
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology
Child
Cohort Studies
Female
Great Britain - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Motor Skills Disorders - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Neurodevelopmental impairments have been associated with early-onset schizophrenia, early-onset bipolar disorder, and childhood-onset affective disorder. The authors investigated whether delayed childhood motor skills predicted persistent anxiety in adolescence among 6,850 subjects from a national 1958 U.K. birth cohort. METHOD: This historic cohort study used data from the National Child Development Study that was collected when its subjects were 7, 11, and 16 years old. RESULTS: Boys with poor motor skills had more than threefold the odds of maternally rated anxiety at the ages of 11 and 16, but no effect was observed for girls. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood motor impairment was strongly associated with persistent anxiety among male, but not among female, adolescents. The effect modification by sex was greater than expected, as was the effect size for boys. Both findings warrant replication and further examination.
Notes
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2003 Feb;6(1):1812588824
PubMed ID
12042195 View in PubMed
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Association between short birth intervals and schizophrenia in the offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61538
Source
Schizophr Res. 2004 Sep 1;70(1):49-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2004
Author
Luc Smits
Carsten Pedersen
Preben Mortensen
Jim van Os
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Universiteit Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. luc.smits@epid.unimaas.nl
Source
Schizophr Res. 2004 Sep 1;70(1):49-56
Date
Sep-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth Intervals - statistics & numerical data
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Female
Folic Acid Deficiency - metabolism
Humans
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Time Factors
Vitamin B 6 Deficiency - metabolism
Abstract
Pregnancy burdens maternal folate reserves. Postpartum restoration to normal folate values may take up to 1 year. Maternal folate deficiency during early pregnancy has been hypothesized as a cause of schizophrenia in the offspring. We investigated whether the risk of schizophrenia is increased in persons conceived shortly after another birth. A population-based cohort was established of 1.43 million persons born in Denmark between 1950 and 1983, yielding 17.6 million person-years of follow-up. Schizophrenia in cohort members (5095 cases) and their siblings and parents was identified by linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. Relative risks of schizophrenia were estimated by use of log-linear Poisson regression. As compared to intervals of 45 months and longer, the schizophrenia risk ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.35) for interbirth intervals of up to 15 months, 1.32 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.56) for intervals of 15 to 17 months, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.61), for intervals of 18 to 20 months and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.29) for intervals of 21 to 26 months. Relative risks did not essentially change after adjustment for age, sex, calendar year of diagnosis, maternal and paternal age, history of mental illness in a parent or sibling, sibship size, place of birth, and distance to younger sibling. These results show an association between short birth intervals and schizophrenia in the offspring. Although maternal folate depletion may play a role in this association, we cannot rule out other explanations such as maternal stress during pregnancy and childhood infections.
PubMed ID
15246463 View in PubMed
Less detail

The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273409
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2015 Sep;41(5):1084-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Pia Jeppesen
Janne Tidselbak Larsen
Lars Clemmensen
Anja Munkholm
Martin Kristian Rimvall
Charlotte Ulrikka Rask
Jim van Os
Liselotte Petersen
Anne Mette Skovgaard
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2015 Sep;41(5):1084-94
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Delusions - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Hallucinations - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Humans
Male
Pedigree
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Registries
Risk
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Abstract
Psychotic experiences (PE) in individuals of the general population are hypothesized to mark the early expression of the pathology underlying psychosis. This notion of PE as an intermediate phenotype is based on the premise that PE share genetic liability with psychosis. We examined whether PE in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.82-5.93). The risk increased for combined hallucinations and delusions (adjusted RR = 5.90, 95% CI: 2.64-13.16). A history of nonpsychotic mental disorders in first-degree relatives did not contribute to the risk of PE in offspring nor did any mental disorder among second-degree relatives. Our findings support the notion of PE as a vulnerability marker of transdiagnostic psychosis. The effect of psychosis in first-degree relatives may operate through shared genetic and environmental factors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25452427 View in PubMed
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Confirmation of synergy between urbanicity and familial liability in the causation of psychosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70840
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Dec;161(12):2312-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Jim van Os
Carsten B Pedersen
Preben B Mortensen
Author Affiliation
Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands. j.vanos@sp.unimaas.nl
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Dec;161(12):2312-4
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Causality
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Family Health
Female
Genetic markers
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Social Environment
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study replicated a previous report that there may be substantial synergism between urbanicity (a proxy environmental risk factor) and familial clustering of psychotic disorder (a proxy genetic risk factor). METHOD: The amount of synergism was estimated from the additive statistical interaction between urbanicity of place of birth and family history of schizophrenia or family history of any severe mental disorder in a population-based Danish cohort of 1,020,063 individuals. RESULTS: There was significant interaction between urbanicity and family history; between 20% and 35% of individuals who had been exposed to both of these risk factors had schizophrenia possibly because of their synergistic effects. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a substantial proportion of the population morbidity force of schizophrenia may be the result of gene-environment interactions associated with urbanicity.
PubMed ID
15569906 View in PubMed
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Evidence for Genetic Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Age at First Birth in Women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282521
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 May 01;73(5):497-505
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-01-2016
Author
Divya Mehta
Felix C Tropf
Jacob Gratten
Andrew Bakshi
Zhihong Zhu
Silviu-Alin Bacanu
Gibran Hemani
Patrik K E Magnusson
Nicola Barban
Tõnu Esko
Andres Metspalu
Harold Snieder
Bryan J Mowry
Kenneth S Kendler
Jian Yang
Peter M Visscher
John J McGrath
Melinda C Mills
Naomi R Wray
S Hong Lee
Ole A Andreassen
Elvira Bramon
Richard Bruggeman
Joseph D Buxbaum
Murray J Cairns
Rita M Cantor
C Robert Cloninger
David Cohen
Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
Ariel Darvasi
Lynn E DeLisi
Timothy Dinan
Srdjan Djurovic
Gary Donohoe
Elodie Drapeau
Valentina Escott-Price
Nelson B Freimer
Lyudmila Georgieva
Lieuwe de Haan
Frans A Henskens
Inge Joa
Antonio Julià
Andrey Khrunin
Bernard Lerer
Svetlana Limborska
Carmel M Loughland
Milan Macek
Sara Marsal
Robert W McCarley
Andrew M McIntosh
Andrew McQuillin
Bela Melegh
Patricia T Michie
Derek W Morris
Kieran C Murphy
Inez Myin-Germeys
Ann Olincy
Jim Van Os
Christos Pantelis
Danielle Posthuma
Digby Quested
Ulrich Schall
Rodney J Scott
Larry J Seidman
Draga Toncheva
Paul A Tooney
John Waddington
Daniel R Weinberger
Mark Weiser
Jing Qin Wu
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 May 01;73(5):497-505
Date
May-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alleles
Birth Order
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Genome-Wide Association Study
Humans
Maternal Age
Phenotype
Pregnancy
Risk
Schizophrenia - genetics
Abstract
A recently published study of national data by McGrath et al in 2014 showed increased risk of schizophrenia (SCZ) in offspring associated with both early and delayed parental age, consistent with a U-shaped relationship. However, it remains unclear if the risk to the child is due to psychosocial factors associated with parental age or if those at higher risk for SCZ tend to have children at an earlier or later age.
To determine if there is a genetic association between SCZ and age at first birth (AFB) using genetically informative but independently ascertained data sets.
This investigation used multiple independent genome-wide association study data sets. The SCZ sample comprised 18?957 SCZ cases and 22?673 controls in a genome-wide association study from the second phase of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, and the AFB sample comprised 12?247 genotyped women measured for AFB from the following 4 community cohorts: Estonia (Estonian Genome Center Biobank, University of Tartu), the Netherlands (LifeLines Cohort Study), Sweden (Swedish Twin Registry), and the United Kingdom (TwinsUK). Schizophrenia genetic risk for each woman in the AFB community sample was estimated using genetic effects inferred from the SCZ genome-wide association study.
We tested if SCZ genetic risk was a significant predictor of response variables based on published polynomial functions that described the relationship between maternal age and SCZ risk in offspring in Denmark. We substituted AFB for maternal age in these functions, one of which was corrected for the age of the father, and found that the fit was superior for the model without adjustment for the father's age.
We observed a U-shaped relationship between SCZ risk and AFB in the community cohorts, consistent with the previously reported relationship between SCZ risk in offspring and maternal age when not adjusted for the age of the father. We confirmed that SCZ risk profile scores significantly predicted the response variables (coefficient of determination R2?=?1.1E-03, P?=?4.1E-04), reflecting the published relationship between maternal age and SCZ risk in offspring by McGrath et al in 2014.
This study provides evidence for a significant overlap between genetic factors associated with risk of SCZ and genetic factors associated with AFB. It has been reported that SCZ risk associated with increased maternal age is explained by the age of the father and that de novo mutations that occur more frequently in the germline of older men are the underlying causal mechanism. This explanation may need to be revised if, as suggested herein and if replicated in future studies, there is also increased genetic risk of SCZ in older mothers.
PubMed ID
27007234 View in PubMed
Less detail

Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for schizophrenia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107798
Source
Nat Genet. 2013 Oct;45(10):1150-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Stephan Ripke
Colm O'Dushlaine
Kimberly Chambert
Jennifer L Moran
Anna K Kähler
Susanne Akterin
Sarah E Bergen
Ann L Collins
James J Crowley
Menachem Fromer
Yunjung Kim
Sang Hong Lee
Patrik K E Magnusson
Nick Sanchez
Eli A Stahl
Stephanie Williams
Naomi R Wray
Kai Xia
Francesco Bettella
Anders D Borglum
Brendan K Bulik-Sullivan
Paul Cormican
Nick Craddock
Christiaan de Leeuw
Naser Durmishi
Michael Gill
Vera Golimbet
Marian L Hamshere
Peter Holmans
David M Hougaard
Kenneth S Kendler
Kuang Lin
Derek W Morris
Ole Mors
Preben B Mortensen
Benjamin M Neale
Francis A O'Neill
Michael J Owen
Milica Pejovic Milovancevic
Danielle Posthuma
John Powell
Alexander L Richards
Brien P Riley
Douglas Ruderfer
Dan Rujescu
Engilbert Sigurdsson
Teimuraz Silagadze
August B Smit
Hreinn Stefansson
Stacy Steinberg
Jaana Suvisaari
Sarah Tosato
Matthijs Verhage
James T Walters
Douglas F Levinson
Pablo V Gejman
Claudine Laurent
Bryan J Mowry
Michael C O'Donovan
Ann E Pulver
Sibylle G Schwab
Dieter B Wildenauer
Frank Dudbridge
Jianxin Shi
Margot Albus
Madeline Alexander
Dominique Campion
David Cohen
Dimitris Dikeos
Jubao Duan
Peter Eichhammer
Stephanie Godard
Mark Hansen
F Bernard Lerer
Kung-Yee Liang
Wolfgang Maier
Jacques Mallet
Deborah A Nertney
Gerald Nestadt
Nadine Norton
George N Papadimitriou
Robert Ribble
Alan R Sanders
Jeremy M Silverman
Dermot Walsh
Nigel M Williams
Brandon Wormley
Maria J Arranz
Steven Bakker
Stephan Bender
Elvira Bramon
David Collier
Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
Jeremy Hall
Conrad Iyegbe
Assen Jablensky
Rene S Kahn
Luba Kalaydjieva
Stephen Lawrie
Cathryn M Lewis
Don H Linszen
Ignacio Mata
Andrew McIntosh
Robin M Murray
Roel A Ophoff
Jim Van Os
Muriel Walshe
Matthias Weisbrod
Durk Wiersma
Peter Donnelly
Ines Barroso
Jenefer M Blackwell
Matthew A Brown
Juan P Casas
Aiden P Corvin
Panos Deloukas
Audrey Duncanson
Janusz Jankowski
Hugh S Markus
Christopher G Mathew
Colin N A Palmer
Robert Plomin
Anna Rautanen
Stephen J Sawcer
Richard C Trembath
Ananth C Viswanathan
Nicholas W Wood
Chris C A Spencer
Gavin Band
Céline Bellenguez
Colin Freeman
Garrett Hellenthal
Eleni Giannoulatou
Matti Pirinen
Richard D Pearson
Amy Strange
Zhan Su
Damjan Vukcevic
Cordelia Langford
Sarah E Hunt
Sarah Edkins
Rhian Gwilliam
Hannah Blackburn
Suzannah J Bumpstead
Serge Dronov
Matthew Gillman
Emma Gray
Naomi Hammond
Alagurevathi Jayakumar
Owen T McCann
Jennifer Liddle
Simon C Potter
Radhi Ravindrarajah
Michelle Ricketts
Avazeh Tashakkori-Ghanbaria
Matthew J Waller
Paul Weston
Sara Widaa
Pamela Whittaker
Mark I McCarthy
Kari Stefansson
Edward Scolnick
Shaun Purcell
Steven A McCarroll
Pamela Sklar
Christina M Hultman
Patrick F Sullivan
Author Affiliation
1] Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. [3].
Source
Nat Genet. 2013 Oct;45(10):1150-9
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genome-Wide Association Study
Humans
Male
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Schizophrenia - genetics
Sweden
Abstract
Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067 controls) and finally by replication of SNPs in 168 genomic regions in independent samples (7,413 cases, 19,762 controls and 581 parent-offspring trios). We identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance; 13 of these are new, and 1 was previously implicated in bipolar disorder. Examination of candidate genes at these loci suggests the involvement of neuronal calcium signaling. We estimate that 8,300 independent, mostly common SNPs (95% credible interval of 6,300-10,200 SNPs) contribute to risk for schizophrenia and that these collectively account for at least 32% of the variance in liability. Common genetic variation has an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and larger studies will allow more detailed understanding of this disorder.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23974872 View in PubMed
Less detail

National funding for mental health research in Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291605
Source
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017 09; 27(9):892-899
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
09-2017
Author
Jean-Baptiste Hazo
Coralie Gandré
Marion Leboyer
Carla Obradors-Tarragó
Stefano Belli
David McDaid
A-La Park
Maria Victoria Maliandi
Kristian Wahlbeck
Til Wykes
Jim van Os
Josep Maria Haro
Karine Chevreul
Author Affiliation
ECEVE, UMRS 1123, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, INSERM, Paris, France; AP-HP, URC-Eco, DHU Pepsy, F-75004 Paris, France; Foundation FondaMental, French National Science Foundation, Créteil, France. Electronic address: jeanbaptiste.hazo@urc-eco.fr.
Source
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017 09; 27(9):892-899
Date
09-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Biomedical Research - economics
Charities - economics
Finland
France
Humans
Mental Health - economics
Spain
United Kingdom
Abstract
As part of the Roamer project, we aimed at revealing the share of health research budgets dedicated to mental health, as well as on the amounts allocated to such research for four European countries. Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom national public and non-profit funding allocated to mental health research in 2011 were investigated using, when possible, bottom-up approaches. Specifics of the data collection varied from country to country. The total amount of public and private not for profit mental health research funding for Finland, France, Spain and the UK was €10·2, €84·8, €16·8, and €127·6 million, respectively. Charities accounted for a quarter of the funding in the UK and less than six per cent elsewhere. The share of health research dedicated to mental health ranged from 4·0% in the UK to 9·7% in Finland. When compared to the DALY attributable to mental disorders, Spain, France, Finland, and the UK invested respectively €12·5, €31·2, €39·5, and €48·7 per DALY. Among these European countries, there is an important gap between the level of mental health research funding and the economic and epidemiologic burden of mental disorders.
PubMed ID
28647453 View in PubMed
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Psychotic experiences co-occur with sleep problems, negative affect and mental disorders in preadolescence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269346
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 May;56(5):558-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Pia Jeppesen
Lars Clemmensen
Anja Munkholm
Martin K Rimvall
Charlotte U Rask
Torben Jørgensen
Janne T Larsen
Liselotte Petersen
Jim van Os
Anne M Skovgaard
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 May;56(5):558-65
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Affective Symptoms - epidemiology
Child
Comorbidity
Delusions - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hallucinations - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology
Sleep Wake Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Knowledge on the significance of childhood psychotic symptoms and experiences (PE) is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of PE in preadolescent children from the general population by use of in-depth psychopathological interviews and comprehensive diagnostic assessments.
We investigated 1,632 children from the general population-based Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. PE were measured by semistructured interviews using the K-SADS-PL-items on psychotic and affective symptoms, each symptom scored as not present versus likely or definitely present. The Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) was used independently to diagnose DSM-IV-mental disorders. Puberty development and sleep disturbance were self-reported. The associations between PE (any lifetime hallucination and/or delusion) and various mental problems and disorders were examined by multivariable binomial regression analyses, adjusting for gender and onset of puberty.
The weighted life time prevalence of PE at age 11-12 years was 10.9% (CI 9.1-12.7). The majority of children with PE (n = 172) either had a diagnosable DSM-IV-mental disorder (31.4%) or self-reported mental health difficulties in absence of a diagnosis (31.4%). The risk of delusions increased with onset of puberty. The risk of PE increased with emotional and neurodevelopmental disorders, subthreshold depressive symptoms, sleep problems and lack of sleep, regardless of whether PE were expressed as hallucinations and/or delusions. The highest correlations were seen for emotional and multiple disorders.
Psychotic experiences are particularly prevalent in the context of affective dysregulation and sleep disturbance, increase with onset of puberty and represent a trans-diagnostic marker of psychopathology.
PubMed ID
25156482 View in PubMed
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