To compare the effects of two antihypertensive treatment strategies for the prevention of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular events in the large subpopulation (n=5137) with diabetes mellitus in the blood pressure-lowering arm of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial.
Patients had either untreated hypertension or treated hypertension. For those with type II diabetes mellitus, inclusion criteria required at least two additional risk factors. Patients were randomized to amlodipine with addition of perindopril as required (amlodipine-based) or atenolol with addition of thiazide as required (atenolol-based). Therapy was titrated to achieve a target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mmHg.
The trial was terminated early due to significant benefits on mortality and stroke associated with the amlodipine-based regimen. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the amlodipine-based treatment reduced the incidence of the composite endpoint--total cardiovascular events and procedures--compared with the atenolol-based regimen (hazard ratio 0.86, confidence interval 0.76-0.98, P=0.026). Fatal and nonfatal strokes were reduced by 25% (P=0.017), peripheral arterial disease by 48% (P=0.004) and noncoronary revascularization procedures by 57% (P
Cluster headache (CH) is a disabling headache disorder with chronobiological features. The posterior hypothalamus is involved in CH pathophysiology and is a hub for autonomic control. We studied autonomic response to the head-up tilt table test (HUT) including heart rate variability (HRV) in CH patients and compared results to healthy controls.
Twenty-seven episodic and chronic CH patients and an equal number of age-, sex- and BMI-matched controls were included. We analyzed responses to HUT in the time and frequency domain and by non-linear analysis.
CH patients have normal cardiovascular responses compared to controls but increased blood pressure. In the frequency analysis CH patients had a smaller change in the normalized low- (LF) (2.89 vs. 13.38, p?
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the occurrence of isolated diastolic dysfunction (DD) in the general population is limited. AIMS: This population study was performed to assess the frequency and distribution pattern of echocardiographic indices of left ventricular (LV) DD in an elderly population aged 50-89 years in which LV systolic function is preserved. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population (n=764) recruited from the background population answered a heart failure questionnaire and underwent echocardiography. Excluding subjects with a LV ejection fraction
PURPOSE: Symptoms in patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction may be caused by isolated diastolic dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction as a potential cause of dyspnea in a sample of elderly subjects, as well as of isolated diastolic dysfunction as a potential cause of dyspnea in a subgroup with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and normal lung function. METHODS: A total of 152 subjects with dyspnea underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and lung function testing. Subjects with normal lung function test results (n = 60) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, chest radiography, bicycle exercise tests, and blood tests. Left ventricular diastolic function was assessed by a variety of echocardiographic/Doppler techniques. RESULTS: Of 129 subjects with dyspnea, 81 (63%) had signs of lung disease or 'obvious' cardiac disease. In the remaining 48 subjects, 32 (67%) had a potential cardiac/noncardiac cause of dyspnea. In all subjects with dyspnea, 1% to 11% had diastolic dysfunction, and in the 48 remaining subjects, 0% to 10% had isolated diastolic dysfunction, depending on the definition used. CONCLUSION: The frequency of diastolic dysfunction was low in the sample of elderly subjects with dyspnea as well as in the subgroup of persons with no signs of lung disease, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, or valvular heart disease. Diastolic dysfunction was infrequent as a possible cause of dyspnea, and coexisting potential causes of dyspnea were often present.
Comment In: Am J Med. 2005 Jan;118(1):32-415639207
Comment In: Am J Med. 2005 Nov;118(11):1300-1; author reply 130116271926
Comment In: Am J Med. 2005 Nov;118(11):1301-2; author reply 130216271928
Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.
The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed dyslipidaemic.
Of 19 342 hypertensive patients (aged 40-79 years with at least three other cardiovascular risk factors) randomised to one of two antihypertensive regimens in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, 10,305 with nonfasting total cholesterol concentrations 6.5 mmol/L or less were randomly assigned additional atorvastatin 10 mg or placebo. These patients formed the lipid-lowering arm of the study. We planned follow-up for an average of 5 years, the primary endpoint being non-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD. Data were analysed by intention to treat.
Treatment was stopped after a median follow-up of 3.3 years. By that time, 100 primary events had occurred in the atorvastatin group compared with 154 events in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.64 [95% CI 0.50-0.83], p = 0.0005). This benefit emerged in the first year of follow-up. There was no significant heterogeneity among prespecified subgroups. Fatal and non-fatal stroke (89 atorvastatin vs 121 placebo, 0.73 [0.56-0.96], p = 0.024), total cardiovascular events (389 vs 486, 0.79 [0.69-0.90], p = 0.0005), and total coronary events (178 vs 247, 0.71 [0.59-0.86], p = 0.0005) were also significantly lowered. There were 185 deaths in the atorvastatin group and 212 in the placebo group (0.87 [0.71-1.06], p = 0.16). Atorvastatin lowered total serum cholesterol by about 1.3 mmol/L compared with placebo at 12 months, and by 1.1 mmol/L after 3 years of follow-up.
The reductions in major cardiovascular events with atorvastatin are large, given the short follow-up time. These findings may have implications for future lipid-lowering guidelines.
AIMS: To determine the prognosis, total mortality and cardiac morbidity, of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure (HF) in a general population sample. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 764 subjects, 432 females and 332 males, median age (range) 66 years (50-89), participated in this cross sectional survey. The study population was recruited from randomly selected general practitioners and stratified to include a minimum of 150 persons in each age decade stratum. Each participant filled in a heart failure questionnaire and ECG, blood tests and echocardiography were performed. Median (range) follow-up was 1145 (51-1197) days. Subjects with LVEF 0.40. The age and gender adjusted 2-year relative risk of death was 4.6 (95% C.I.=1.6-13.2). No significant difference in mortality was found between subjects with or without heart failure symptoms. CONCLUSION: Significantly higher mortality as well as cardiac morbidity was found in subjects with symptomatic and asymptomatic LV systolic dysfunction compared to those with normal systolic function. These conditions were among the strongest predictors of all-cause mortality and cardiac morbidity.
Semen quality has been suggested to be a biological marker of long-term morbidity and mortality; however, few studies have been conducted on this subject. We identified 5,370 men seen for infertility at Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark, during 1977-2010, and 4,712 of these men were followed in the Danish National Patient Registry until first hospitalization, death, or the end of the study. We classified patients according to hospitalizations and the presence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, testicular cancer, or prostate cancer. We found a clear association between sperm concentration below 15 million/mL and all-cause hospitalizations (hazard ratio?=?1.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 1.6) and cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio?=?1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 1.6), compared with men with a concentration above 40 million/mL. The probabilities for hospitalizations were also higher with a low total sperm count and low motility. Men with a sperm concentration of 195-200 million/mL were, on average, hospitalized for the first time 7 years later than were men with a sperm concentration of 0-5 million/mL. Semen quality was associated with long-term morbidity, and a significantly higher risk of hospitalization was found, in particular for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Our study supports the suggestion that semen quality is a strong biomarker of general health.
The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine.
We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function.
All patients had symptoms consistent with pronounced autonomic dysfunction including different degrees of orthostatic intolerance, severe non-migraine-like headache, excessive fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, gastrointestinal discomfort and widespread pain of a neuropathic character.
We found consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced in these patients and to evaluate the possibility and the nature of any causal link and hopefully establish targeted treatment options.