Neck and shoulder pain is frequent in adolescents, and multiple factors seem to affect the risk of such symptoms. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain in Norwegian adolescence and to examine whether behavioral and emotional factors were associated with the risk of neck and shoulder pain. Finally we aimed to investigate whether neck and shoulder pain was related to the use of health services.
Data from the population-based study ung@hordaland were used. Participants were asked how often during the last 6 months they had experienced neck and shoulder pain. The association between frequent neck and shoulder pain and physical activity, symptoms of depression, and screen-based activities was evaluated using logistic regression analyses stratified by gender. The relative risk of visiting health services when reporting neck and shoulder pain was calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses.
Frequent neck and shoulder pain was reported by 20.0% (1,797 of the total 8,990) and more often by girls than boys (p
Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record
Whether lockdown related to the COVID-19 pandemic influences alcohol consumption is not well known. This study assesses alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking behavior during the initial phase of pandemic measures in Norway and identifies potential risk factors. A cross-sectional study (N = 25,708) was conducted in Bergen, Norway, following the first six weeks of strict infection control measures. In a model of self-assessed increased alcohol consumption, logistic regression analysis was conducted with independent variables for COVID-19-related worries, joblessness, quarantine, self-reported drinking behavior, age, gender, and occupational situation. These are reported with odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. Fifty-one percent of respondents reported economic or health-related worries due to COVID-19, 16% had been in quarantine, 49% worked/studied from home, 54% reported hazardous drinking behavior, and 13% reported increased alcohol consumption. People aged 30-39 years had elevated odds of increased alcohol consumption during lockdown (OR 3.1, 2.4-3.8) compared to the oldest adults. Increased drinking was more frequent among people reporting economic worries (OR 1.6, 1.4-1.8), those quarantined (OR 1.2, 1.1-1.4), and those studying or working at home (OR 1.4, 1.3-1.6). More than half of respondents reported hazardous drinking behavior. Increased alcohol consumption during lockdown was common among people with economic worries, people in quarantine, and people studying or working at home. These data could be important when adjusting pandemic measures.
To examine associations of abstention, alcohol consumption and problem drinking with subsequent disability pensioning (DP), and whether previous excessive consumption ('sick-quitting') could explain some of the increased risk for DP among abstainers.
Prospective population-based study.
Data were from two waves of the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Study (HUNT) linked with the national insurance database. The two main analyses included 37,729 (alcohol consumption) and 34,666 (problem drinking) participants.
Alcohol consumption was measured by self-reported consumption, while problem drinking was assessed by the Cut down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener (CAGE) questionnaire. Information on subsequent DP, including diagnosis for which the DP was awarded, was gathered from the national insurance database. Covariates included somatic illness and symptoms, mental health, health-related behaviour, socio-economic status and social activity.
Those reporting the highest level of alcohol consumption were not at increased risk for DP [hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-1.38], whereas problem drinking was a strong predictor (HR 2.79, 95% CI: 2.08-3.75) compared to their corresponding reference groups. Alcohol abstainers were also at increased risk for DP, but among them, the previous consumers (HR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.48-2.57) and previous excessive consumers (HR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.01-2.74) were at higher risk for DP than constant abstainers.
Problem drinking is linked to subsequent requirement for a disability pension but mere alcohol consumption is not. This is partly explained by 'sick-quitting'.
Stine Sofies Foundation & Stine Sofie Centre, Grimstad, Norway; Department of Psychosocial Health, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: email@example.com.
A history of childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) is associated with exposure to later negative life events. CAN at an early age, multiple cooccurring exposures (cumulative events), and a high severity and frequency of exposure have potential detrimental long-term effects.
The present study examines the relationship between the severity of CAN and the prevalence of school difficulties and hardship at school, adult adversity and mental health.
Participants were recruited from in- and outpatient mental health or substance abuse treatment facilities, child protective services (CPS), and prisons (N?=?809, age range?=?13-66, mean age?=?27.62, SD?=?10.47).
Exposure to childhood maltreatment was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short Form (CTQ-SF). After adjusting for gender and age, we conducted a risk ratio regression analysis to investigate associations between severity of child abuse and neglect and hardship at school, adult adversity and adult mental health.
The moderate and severe level groups of CAN had statistically significant higher risk ratios for experiences of school difficulties, hardship at school, adult adversity and mental health problems. A robust dose-response was found between severity levels.
At an individual level the findings highlight the association between exposure to abuse and adult adversity, underscoring the importance of targeting individuals with high risk of exposure to CAN to reduce the negative long-term risk for Polyvictimization.
Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University, St. Olavs plass, NO-0130, Oslo, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Harmful alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for ill-health on an individual level, a global public health challenge, and associated with workplace productivity loss. This study aimed to explore the proportion of risky drinkers in a sample of employees, investigate sociodemographic associations with risky drinking, and examine implications for intervention needs, according to recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO).
In a cross-sectional design, sociodemographic data were collected from Norwegian employees in 14 companies (n?=?3571) across sectors and branches. Risky drinking was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The threshold for risky drinking was set at =8 scores on the AUDIT. Based on WHO guidelines, risky drinkers were divided into three risk categories (moderate risk: scores 8-15, high risk: scores 16-19, and dependence likely risk: scores 20-40). The association between sociodemographic variables and risky drinking were explored with chi square tests for independence and adjusted logistic regression. The risk groups were then examined according to the WHO intervention recommendations.
11.0% of the total sample reported risky drinking. Risky drinking was associated with male gender (OR?=?2.97, p?
The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CAGE questionnaire, and the questionnaire's concurrent validity with current and previous alcohol consumption. This study employed data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey wave 1 (HUNT-1 in 1984-86: N=24,900) and wave 2 (HUNT-2 in 1995-97: N=36,350). The concurrent validity of the CAGE questionnaire was examined both as a dichotomous variable with the recommended cut-off (=2 affirmative answers) for alcohol problems, and as a categorical scale. The categorical scale was constructed by counting responses from 0 to 4, and a separate category for current abstainers in HUNT-2. Current self-reported consumption above the gender specific 80th percentile was defined as "current excessive consumption". "Previous excessive consumers" were defined by meeting at least one of the two following criteria at the time of HUNT-1: reporting drinking too much alcohol in any period of their life, or reporting a high level of alcohol consumption. The internal reliability of CAGE was adequate, and in relation to alcohol consumption, there was a linear relationship between the CAGE score and both the current and previous excessive consumption. In conclusion, this study indicates good concurrent validity and adequate psychometric properties of the CAGE questionnaire. The dose-response pattern seen between the CAGE score and alcohol consumption, suggests that it can be used as an ordinal measure, rather than with a cut-off of two or more. The concurrent validity of the CAGE is better in women than in men.
Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway; Department of Medicine, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The Whiteley Index (WI) is a widely used screening instrument for health anxiety/hypochondriasis. Several studies have previously explored the psychometric properties of the WI, but with mixed findings concerning both item composition and factor structure. The main aim of the current study was to examine different factor structures as identified from previous studies using data from a large general population based study. We also wanted to provide gender specific norms.
Data were taken from a large population-based study in Norway, the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK N=7274). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of several models of the WI was conducted. Item response theory (IRT) analysis was performed on the model with the best goodness-of-fit.
CFA of all previously proposed factor models of the WI revealed clearly inadequate model fits. The IRT analysis suggested that a six-item model best described the data, and CFA confirmed an adequate goodness-of-fit across indices.
The current study found evidence for a six-item, single-factor model of the WI. Our findings suggest that this abbreviated version has the best factor structure compared to previously proposed factor models. We recommend that the factor structure identified in this study should be investigated further in independent samples.
The aim of the current paper was to investigate the association between the patterns of duration, timing and sequencing of exposure to low family income during childhood, and symptoms of mental health problems in adolescence.
Survey administered to a large population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents.
Survey data from 9154 participants of 16-19?years age (53% participation rate; 52.7% girls) were linked to registry-based information about childhood family income from tax return data.
Mental health outcomes were symptoms of emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer problems and general mental health problems measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, symptoms of depression measured with Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) measured with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale.
Latent class analysis and the BCH approach in Mplus were used to examine associations between patterns of poverty exposure and mental health outcomes. Four latent classes of poverty exposure emerged from the analysis. Participants moving into poverty (2.3%), out of poverty (3.5%) or those chronically poor (3.1%) had more symptoms of mental health problems (Cohen's d=16-.50) than those with no poverty exposure (91.1%). This pattern was, however, not found for symptoms of ADHD. The pattern of results was confirmed in robustness checks using observed data.
Exposure to poverty in childhood was found to be associated with most mental health problems in adolescence. There was no strong suggestion of any timing or sequencing effects in the patterns of associations.
Population-based studies have revealed a high occurrence of self-reported psychological distress symptoms during the early phases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Stress and negative affect can lead to emotional eating, which in turn can have negative outcomes on health. In this population-based study, 24,968 Norwegian inhabitants participated in an electronic questionnaire including structured questions on dietary habits, emotional eating, psychological distress symptoms, and COVID-19-related worries. The study took place during April 2020 after around six weeks of interventions to tackle the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, emotional eating was reported in 54% of the population and was markedly more frequent in female participants. Worries related to consequences of the pandemic were associated with increased emotional eating, and the association was stronger for worries related to personal economy-odds ratios (OR) 1.7 (95% confidence interval (CI95%) 1.5-1.9)-compared to worries related to health-OR 1.3 (CI95% 1.2-1.5). Psychological distress had a strong association with emotional eating-OR 4.2 (CI95% 3.9-4.4). Correspondingly, the intake of high-sugar foods and beverages was higher for those with substantial COVID-19-related worries and those with psychological distress compared to the overall population.