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Anthropogenic litter in marine waters and coastlines of Arctic Canada and West Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311677
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2021 Apr 07; 783:146971
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-07-2021
Author
Mark L Mallory
Julia Baak
Carina Gjerdrum
Olivia E Mallory
Brittany Manley
Cedar Swan
Jennifer F Provencher
Author Affiliation
Biology, Acadia University, 15 University Avenue, Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4P 2R6, Canada. Electronic address: mark.mallory@acadiau.ca.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2021 Apr 07; 783:146971
Date
Apr-07-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Despite much interest and research into marine litter (including plastic debris) on beaches globally, relatively little is known about the density and distribution of this pollutant in Arctic environments, particularly Arctic Canada and West Greenland. We used two sources of data, observations of floating litter from vessels at sea, and quadrat surveys of litter on low slope beaches, to establish the first measures of anthropogenic litter densities in this region. Most litter observed (73%) was plastic, predominantly fragments, threads and sheets, with a mean density of 1.0 ± 1.7 (SD) items·m-2 along sandy/gravel beaches (median 1), and items were observed on the ocean surface as far as 78°N. Litter densities were significantly greater for sites within 5 km of communities, and much of the litter near remote communities was clearly from local sources. However, contrary to our predictions, we did not find that litter densities decreased with increasing latitude. Collectively, our results confirm that this global pollutant is distributed around much of this portion of the Arctic, and that better waste management strategies in a number of sectors may help reduce its occurrence in this remote region.
PubMed ID
33865122 View in PubMed
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Arctic cleansing diet: Sex-specific variation in the rapid elimination of contaminants by the world's champion migrant, the Arctic tern.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301721
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Nov 01; 689:716-724
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-01-2019
Author
Mark L Mallory
Christine M Anderson
Birgit M Braune
Isabeau Pratte
Jennifer F Provencher
Author Affiliation
Biology, Acadia University, 33 Westwood Avenue, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6, Canada. Electronic address: mark.mallory@acadiau.ca.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Nov 01; 689:716-724
Date
Nov-01-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Contamination of Arctic marine environments continues to be a concern for wildlife managers. Because the Arctic is a sink for the long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), many studies have detected high concentrations of POPs in various Arctic birds. In this study from high Arctic Canada, we show that male Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), which migrate from the Antarctic to the Arctic annually to breed, decline in concentrations of many hepatic POPs through the breeding season. This suggests that local Arctic food webs are less contaminated than regions where terns fed during or migration, despite that the terns appear to feed at a higher trophic level near their colony.
PubMed ID
31280153 View in PubMed
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Are ocean conditions and plastic debris resulting in a 'double whammy' for marine birds?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295835
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Aug; 133:684-692
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2018
Author
Mark C Drever
Jennifer F Provencher
Patrick D O'Hara
Laurie Wilson
Victoria Bowes
Carita M Bergman
Author Affiliation
Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address: mark.drever@canada.ca.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Aug; 133:684-692
Date
Aug-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animal Migration
Animals
British Columbia
Charadriiformes
Dietary Exposure
Ecotoxicology - methods
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Gastrointestinal Contents
Oceans and Seas
Plastics - analysis - toxicity
Waste Products - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
We report a mortality event of Red Phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius) that occurred from October to November 2016 on the north coast of British Columbia, Canada. All individuals were severely underweight and showing signs of physiological stress. The guts of all carcasses contained ingested plastics (100%, n?=?9). Distribution modelling from pelagic bird surveys (1990-2010) indicated that Red Phalaropes are not typically found in the study area during fall months. Ocean conditions during fall 2016 were unusually warm, coinciding with reduced upwelling in the study area. eBird records since 1980 indicated Red Phalaropes are observed closer to shore during periods associated with reduced upwelling. These results suggest that distribution shifts of Red Phalaropes closer to shore, where plastic debris occurs in higher concentrations, may lead phalaropes to feed on plastic debris while in a weakened state, resulting in a combination of two adverse circumstances.
PubMed ID
30041365 View in PubMed
Less detail

Are ocean conditions and plastic debris resulting in a 'double whammy' for marine birds?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293403
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Aug; 133:684-692
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2018
Author
Mark C Drever
Jennifer F Provencher
Patrick D O'Hara
Laurie Wilson
Victoria Bowes
Carita M Bergman
Author Affiliation
Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address: mark.drever@canada.ca.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Aug; 133:684-692
Date
Aug-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
We report a mortality event of Red Phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius) that occurred from October to November 2016 on the north coast of British Columbia, Canada. All individuals were severely underweight and showing signs of physiological stress. The guts of all carcasses contained ingested plastics (100%, n?=?9). Distribution modelling from pelagic bird surveys (1990-2010) indicated that Red Phalaropes are not typically found in the study area during fall months. Ocean conditions during fall 2016 were unusually warm, coinciding with reduced upwelling in the study area. eBird records since 1980 indicated Red Phalaropes are observed closer to shore during periods associated with reduced upwelling. These results suggest that distribution shifts of Red Phalaropes closer to shore, where plastic debris occurs in higher concentrations, may lead phalaropes to feed on plastic debris while in a weakened state, resulting in a combination of two adverse circumstances.
PubMed ID
30041365 View in PubMed
Less detail

Breeding seabirds as vectors of microplastics from sea to land: Evidence from colonies in Arctic Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature304423
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2021 Apr 10; 764:142808
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-10-2021
Author
Madelaine P T Bourdages
Jennifer F Provencher
Julia E Baak
Mark L Mallory
Jesse C Vermaire
Author Affiliation
Carleton University, Geography and Environmental Studies, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada. Electronic address: madelainebourdages@cmail.carleton.ca.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2021 Apr 10; 764:142808
Date
Apr-10-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Microplastics
Plastics
Abstract
The presence and persistence of microplastics in the environment is increasingly recognized, however, how they are distributed throughout environmental systems requires further understanding. Seabirds have been identified as vectors of chemical contaminants from marine to terrestrial environments, and studies have recently identified seabirds as possible vectors of plastic pollution in the marine environment. However, their role in the distribution of microplastic pollution in the Arctic has yet to be explored. We examined two species of seabirds known to ingest plastics: northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis; n = 27) and thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia; n = 30) as potential vectors for the transport of microplastics in and around breeding colonies. Our results indicated anthropogenic particles in the faecal precursors of both species. Twenty-four anthropogenic particles were found in the fulmar faecal precursor samples (M = 0.89, SD = 1.09; 23 fibres and one fragment), and 10 anthropogenic particles were found in the murre faecal precursor samples (M = 0.33, SD = 0.92; 5 fibres, 4 fragments, and one foam). Through the use of bird population surveys and the quantification of anthropogenic particles found in the faecal precursors of sampled seabirds from the same colony, we estimate that fulmars and murres may deposit between 3.3 (CIboot 1.9 × 106-4.9 × 106) and 45.5 (CIboot 9.1 × 106-91.9 × 106) million anthropogenic particles, respectively, per year into the environment during their breeding period at these colonies. These estimates indicate that migratory seabirds could be contributing to the distribution and local hotspots of microplastics in Arctic environments, however, they are still likely a relatively small source of plastic pollution in terms of mass in the environment and may not contribute as much as other reported sources such as atmospheric deposition in the Arctic.
PubMed ID
33082039 View in PubMed
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Evidence for increased ingestion of plastics by northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) in the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151261
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2009 Jul;58(7):1092-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Jennifer F Provencher
Anthony J Gaston
Mark L Mallory
Author Affiliation
University of Victoria, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3020, Station CSC, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3N5. jennipro@uvic.ca
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2009 Jul;58(7):1092-5
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds - physiology
Canada
Eating
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Male
Plastics - classification
Water Pollutants, Chemical - classification
PubMed ID
19403145 View in PubMed
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A geographical comparison of chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated compounds in seabirds breeding in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260233
Source
Environ Res. 2014 Oct;134:46-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Birgit M Braune
Anthony J Gaston
Robert J Letcher
H. Grant Gilchrist
Mark L Mallory
Jennifer F Provencher
Source
Environ Res. 2014 Oct;134:46-56
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds - physiology
Breeding
Geography
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - analysis
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis
Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated - analysis
Nunavut
Abstract
A suite of chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic contaminants were measured in livers of adult thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from several locations in the eastern Canadian Arctic during 2007-2008. Thick-billed murres were collected from five colonies (Coats Island, Digges Island, Akpatok Island, Prince Leopold Island, Minarets) and northern fulmars from two colonies (Prince Leopold Island, Minarets). Legacy organochlorines (e.g. PCBs, DDT, chlorobenzenes, chlordanes) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) dominated the compositional profiles of the measured halogenated compounds in the livers of both species at all colonies. Among the murre colonies sampled, Prince Leopold Island birds generally had the highest mean concentrations of organochlorines, whereas the highest mean concentration of sum (S) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was found at the Minarets and the lowest at Prince Leopold Island. PBDEs were detected in only a few fulmar livers from the Minarets and in none of the fulmar livers from Prince Leopold Island. Mean PFOS concentrations were highest in both murre and fulmar livers at Prince Leopold Island. PFOS was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the mean sum (S) perfluorinated carboxylate (PFCA) concentration in both species and at all colonies. The reasons for inter-colony and inter-species differences in contaminant liver levels are probably variable and complex, and likely reflect differences in contaminant transport and exposure pathways, as well as differences among colonies in their diets and overwintering areas. To our knowledge, this is the first spatial assessment of PBDEs, PFCAs and PFOS in seabirds from the Canadian Arctic.
PubMed ID
25046812 View in PubMed
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Helminths in common eiders (Somateria mollissima): Sex, age, and migration have differential effects on parasite loads.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300863
Source
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2019 Aug; 9:184-194
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2019
Author
Stine Vestbo
Claus Hindberg
Mark R Forbes
Mark L Mallory
Flemming Merkel
Rolanda J Steenweg
Peter Funch
H Grant Gilchrist
Gregory J Robertson
Jennifer F Provencher
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.
Source
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2019 Aug; 9:184-194
Date
Aug-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
In birds, parasites cause detrimental effects to the individual host, including reduced survival and reproductive output. The level of parasitic infection can vary with a range of factors, including migratory status, body size, sex, and age of hosts, or season. Understanding this baseline variation is important in order to identify the effects of external changes such as climate change on the parasitic load and potential impacts to individuals and populations. In this study, we compared the infection level (prevalence, intensity, and abundance) of gastrointestinal parasites in a total of 457 common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from four different sampling locations (Belcher Islands, Cape Dorset, West Greenland and Newfoundland), and explored the effects of migration, sex and age on levels of parasitism. Across all samples, eiders were infected with one nematode genus, two acanthocephalan genera, three genera of cestodes, and three trematode genera. Migratory phase and status alone did not explain the observed variation in infection levels; the expectation that post-migratory eiders would be more parasitized than pre-migratory eiders, due to the energetic cost of migration, did not fit our results. No effect of age was detected, whereas effects of sex and body size were only detected for certain parasitic taxa and was inconsistent with location. Since gastrointestinal helminths are trophically-transmitted, future studies of the regional and temporal variation in the diet of eiders and the associated variation and infestation level of intermediate hosts might further explain the observed variation of the parasitic load in eiders in different regions.
PubMed ID
31193602 View in PubMed
Less detail

Hepatic trace element concentrations of breeding female common eiders across a latitudinal gradient in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292705
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2017 Nov 15; 124(1):252-257
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-15-2017
Author
Conor D Mallory
H Grant Gilchrist
Gregory J Robertson
Jennifer F Provencher
Birgit M Braune
Mark R Forbes
Mark L Mallory
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada. Electronic address: conor@ualberta.ca.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2017 Nov 15; 124(1):252-257
Date
Nov-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Arsenic - analysis
Breeding
Cadmium - analysis
Canada
Ducks
Environmental monitoring
Female
Liver - chemistry
Manganese - analysis
Mercury - analysis
Selenium - analysis
Trace Elements - analysis
Zinc - analysis
Abstract
We examined hepatic concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) in 10 breeding female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from each of three colonies across 20° of latitude. Levels of many elements were elevated in eiders, although generally below levels of toxicological concern. We found significant differences in concentrations of As, Rb, Hg, Mn and Se among colonies, but not in a consistent pattern with latitude, and Hg:Se molar ratios did not vary among colonies. Furthermore, overlap in element concentrations from birds at different colonies meant that we could not reliably differentiate birds from different colonies based on a suite of their hepatic trace element concentrations. We encourage other researchers to assess baseline trace element levels on this important, harvested species, as a means of tracking contamination of nearshore benthic environments in the circumpolar Arctic.
PubMed ID
28739104 View in PubMed
Less detail

Hepatic trace element concentrations of breeding female common eiders across a latitudinal gradient in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284604
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2017 Jul 21;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-21-2017
Author
Conor D Mallory
H Grant Gilchrist
Gregory J Robertson
Jennifer F Provencher
Birgit M Braune
Mark R Forbes
Mark L Mallory
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2017 Jul 21;
Date
Jul-21-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
We examined hepatic concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) in 10 breeding female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from each of three colonies across 20° of latitude. Levels of many elements were elevated in eiders, although generally below levels of toxicological concern. We found significant differences in concentrations of As, Rb, Hg, Mn and Se among colonies, but not in a consistent pattern with latitude, and Hg:Se molar ratios did not vary among colonies. Furthermore, overlap in element concentrations from birds at different colonies meant that we could not reliably differentiate birds from different colonies based on a suite of their hepatic trace element concentrations. We encourage other researchers to assess baseline trace element levels on this important, harvested species, as a means of tracking contamination of nearshore benthic environments in the circumpolar Arctic.
PubMed ID
28739104 View in PubMed
Less detail

25 records – page 1 of 3.