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15 records – page 1 of 2.

Acute stress reactions after submarine accidents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature74958
Source
Mil Med. 2002 May;167(5):427-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2002
Author
Jarle Eid
Bjørn Helge Johnsen
Author Affiliation
Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Mil Med. 2002 May;167(5):427-31
Date
May-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational - psychology
Acute Disease
Adaptation, Psychological
Analysis of Variance
Humans
Male
Military Personnel - psychology
Norway
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Stress, Psychological
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to explore contextual and individual factors associated with acute stress reactions in three Norwegian submarine crews exposed to different significant peacetime maneuver accidents. Approximately 2 to 3 weeks after the accidents, crew members completed the Coping Style Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale, and the Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale. Although exposed subjects (N = 47) revealed more posttraumatic stress symptoms than nonexposed crew members on shore leave (N = 7), they showed less acute stress reactions than survivors from a surface ship accident in the Norwegian Navy. Inspection of individual cases revealed that 4% of the exposed submariners showed high loads of acute stress symptoms. Unit cohesion and habitual coping styles emerged as resilience factors, whereas previous exposure to critical incidents and personal experience of not coping in the accident situation emerged as vulnerability factors, explaining 32% of the acute stress reactions reported by submarine crew members.
PubMed ID
12053854 View in PubMed
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An exploratory study of differences in emotional intelligence in U.S. and Norwegian undergraduate students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137025
Source
Psychol Rep. 2010 Dec;107(3):891-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Sigurd W Hystad
Jarle Eid
Martha Tapia
Anita L Hansen
Michael D Matthews
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Christies Gate 12, P.O. Box 7807, 5020 Bergen, Norway.
Source
Psychol Rep. 2010 Dec;107(3):891-8
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Emotional Intelligence
Emotions
Empathy
Female
Humans
Internal-External Control
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
Self Concept
Sex Factors
Students - psychology
United States
Abstract
The present study explored sex and cultural differences in Emotional Intelligence scores in samples from Norway (n = 297) and the United States (n = 234). Significant main effects for sex were found in overall Emotional Intelligence scores and the Empathy factor. In addition, results revealed a small but significant effect for culture in the Self-control factor, as well as support for an interaction between sex and culture in the Handling Relationships factor. The results are discussed in light of cultural differences between U.S. and Norwegian societies.
PubMed ID
21323148 View in PubMed
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The combined influence of hardiness and cohesion on mental health in a military peacekeeping mission: A prospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278656
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2015 Oct;56(5):560-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Ådne G Thomassen
Sigurd W Hystad
Bjørn Helge Johnsen
Grethe E Johnsen
Jon C Laberg
Jarle Eid
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2015 Oct;56(5):560-6
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - psychology
Military Personnel - psychology
Norway
Prospective Studies
Resilience, Psychological
Sense of Coherence
Young Adult
Abstract
A large number of studies have shown that hardiness and cohesion are associated with mental health in a military context. However, most of them are presented without controlling for baseline mental health symptoms, which is their most significant source of error. The present study investigates the combined effect of hardiness and cohesion in a prospective design, controlling for baseline levels of symptoms among Norwegian personnel serving in a peacekeeping operation in Kosovo. Multivariate regression analyses were performed in which self-reported mental health complaints were regressed on our explanatory variables. Our findings suggest that both cohesion and hardiness contributed to increased stress resiliency, as measured by a lower level of reported mental health complaints. Our baseline measure of mental health accounted for a larger proportion of the variance than our other predictors. A significant interaction between cohesion and hardiness suggested a combined effect, over and above the individual contributions of the predictors. For individuals who scored high on hardiness, cohesion levels did not influence levels of mental health complaints. Individuals who scored low on hardiness, on the other hand, reported lower levels of mental health complaints when cohesion levels were high.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26079844 View in PubMed
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Dispositional optimism and self-assessed situation awareness in a Norwegian military training exercise.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49589
Source
Percept Mot Skills. 2005 Jun;100(3 Pt 1):649-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
Jarle Eid
Michael D Matthews
Nils Tore Meland
Bjørn Helge Johnsen
Author Affiliation
University of Bergen, Norway.
Source
Percept Mot Skills. 2005 Jun;100(3 Pt 1):649-58
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Attitude
Awareness
Comparative Study
Decision Making
Female
Food Deprivation
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Military Personnel - education - psychology
Norway
Personality
Personality Inventory
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Sleep Deprivation
Stress - psychology
Stress, Psychological - psychology
Task Performance and Analysis
Abstract
The current study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and situation awareness. A sample of 77 Royal Norwegian Naval Academy and 57 Royal Norwegian Army Academy cadets were administered the Life Orientation Test prior to participating in a field-training exercise involving a series of challenging missions. Following an infantry mission component of the exercise, situation awareness was measured using the Mission Awareness Rating Scale (MARS), a self-assessment tool. The analysis indicated that dispositional optimism correlated negatively with situation awareness under these conditions. The role of intrapersonal variables in mediating situation awareness and decision-making in stressful situations is discussed.
PubMed ID
16060424 View in PubMed
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Effects of psychological hardiness, job demands, and job control on sickness absence: a prospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133209
Source
J Occup Health Psychol. 2011 Jul;16(3):265-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Sigurd W Hystad
Jarle Eid
John I Brevik
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. sigurd.hystad@psysp.uib.no
Source
J Occup Health Psychol. 2011 Jul;16(3):265-78
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Employment - psychology
Female
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Psychology
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Workload - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Workplace - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This study prospectively investigated the effects of psychological hardiness, job control, and job demands on medically certified sickness absence. Data from a questionnaire survey were combined with archival data for sickness absence among 7,239 civilian and military employees of the Norwegian Armed Forces (84.3% male, 69.8% military). A 2-component hurdle regression was used in the statistical analyses of the sickness absence data. After controlling for age, sex, and baseline absence, hardiness predicted both the likelihood of having any sickness absence (odds ratio = 0.97) and the number of absence spells (a 6.5% decrease in the expected count for 1 standard deviation change in hardiness). In addition, an interaction was found among hardiness, job control, and psychological demands. When demands were high, high job control was associated with more absence among employees with low levels of hardiness. Together, these findings point to hardiness as an important individual resource in relation to health, and that it is necessary to consider individual differences when examining the effects of work characteristics.
PubMed ID
21728435 View in PubMed
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Hardiness, avoidance coping, and alcohol consumption in war veterans: A moderated-mediation study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294239
Source
Stress Health. 2017 Dec; 33(5):498-507
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Paul T Bartone
Bjorn H Johnsen
Jarle Eid
Sigurd W Hystad
Jon C Laberg
Author Affiliation
Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, Washington, DC, USA.
Source
Stress Health. 2017 Dec; 33(5):498-507
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Norway - epidemiology
Resilience, Psychological
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Veterans - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Military personnel often engage in excessive alcohol use after returning from deployments. Thus far, research has paid scant attention to personality factors that may increase or diminish the risk for increased alcohol consumption in this population. The present study explores how psychological hardiness, avoidance coping, and stress exposure may interact to influence alcohol consumption patterns in soldiers following deployment. U.S. Army National Guard soldiers (N = 357) were surveyed shortly after returning from combat operations in Afghanistan. Conditional process analysis was used to test for mediation and moderation effects. Mediation effects were further tested in a replication sample of Norwegian Army soldiers (N = 230) deployed to Kosovo. Findings show that hardiness is a significant (negative) predictor of increased alcohol use and that this relation is mediated by avoidance coping. Further, this effect was moderated by combat stress exposure in the U.S. sample, such that the mediation is stronger for those with greater exposure (moderated-mediation). Avoidance coping also mediated the effects of hardiness on alcohol consumption in the Norwegian sample. These findings suggest that avoidance coping and hardiness may be fruitful areas for interventions aimed at reducing risky drinking in high-stress groups like the military.
PubMed ID
27885790 View in PubMed
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Heart rate variability and cortisol responses during attentional and working memory tasks in naval cadets.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260169
Source
Int Marit Health. 2012;63(4):181-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Bjørn Helge Johnsen
Anita L Hansen
Robert Murison
Jarle Eid
Julian F Thayer
Source
Int Marit Health. 2012;63(4):181-7
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Attention - physiology
Heart rate
Humans
Hydrocortisone - metabolism
Male
Memory, Short-Term - physiology
Military Personnel
Naval Medicine
Norway
Occupational Health
Saliva - metabolism
Ships
Stress, Psychological - physiopathology
Task Performance and Analysis
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of the paper was to study the relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and cortisol release during cognitive challenging tasks. Forty-nine male naval cadets from the Royal Norwegian Naval Academy were administered computerised versions of attentional and working memory tests. The results from this study support the hypothesis of a negative correlation between HRV and cortisol secretion during cognitive tasks. Confirmation of the hypothesis with the low HRV group scoring higher on cortisol only during performance of cognitive tasks and recovery was also found. Furthermore, a replication of the previous findings of a negative association between cortisol levels and performance were supported when using uncorrected comparisons. None of the correlations survived Bonferonin corrections. The findings are discussed in relation to factors increasing HRV, thus improving tolerance to cognitive stress in onboard environments.
PubMed ID
24595973 View in PubMed
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The impact of partial sleep deprivation on moral reasoning in military officers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141054
Source
Sleep. 2010 Aug;33(8):1086-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Olav Kjellevold Olsen
Ståle Pallesen
Jarle Eid
Author Affiliation
The Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Bergen, Norway. Olav.Olsen@psysp.uib.no
Source
Sleep. 2010 Aug;33(8):1086-90
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Humans
Judgment
Male
Military Personnel - psychology
Moral Obligations
Norway
Sleep Deprivation - psychology
Social Justice
Abstract
The present study explores the impact of long-term partial sleep deprivation on the activation of moral justice schemas, which are suggested to play a prominent role in moral reasoning and the formation of moral judgments and behavior.
Participants judged 5 dilemmas in rested and partially sleep deprived condition, in a counterbalanced design.
In classroom and field exercises at the Norwegian Naval Academy and the Norwegian Army Academy.
Seventy-one Norwegian naval and army officer cadets.
The results showed that the officers' ability to conduct mature and principally oriented moral reasoning was severely impaired during partial sleep deprivation compared to the rested state. At the same time, the officers became substantially more rules-oriented in the sleep deprived condition, while self-oriented moral reasoning did not change. Interaction effects showed that those officers who displayed high levels of mature moral reasoning (n = 24) in the rested condition, lost much of this capacity during sleep deprivation in favor of a strong increase in rules-oriented moral reasoning as well as self-orientation. Conversely, officers at low levels of mature moral reasoning in rested condition (n = 23) were unaffected by sleep deprivation.
The present data show that long-term partial sleep deprivation has an impact on the activation of moral justice schemas, and consequently on the ability to make moral justice judgments.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20815191 View in PubMed
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Insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress in victims of sexual abuse: the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128455
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2012 Jun;27(9):1827-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Iris M Steine
John H Krystal
Inger H Nordhus
Bjørn Bjorvatn
Allison G Harvey
Jarle Eid
Janne Grønli
Anne M Milde
Ståle Pallesen
Author Affiliation
University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. iris.steine@psybp.uib.no
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2012 Jun;27(9):1827-43
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dreams - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Norway
Sex Offenses - psychology
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - etiology - psychology
Social Support
Stress, Psychological - etiology - psychology
Abstract
In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics, insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Results show that higher levels of perceived social support were related to lower scores on all symptom outcome measures. Abuse involving oral, genital, or anal penetration was related to more insomnia symptoms. Longer duration of abuse and threatening conducted by the perpetrator were related to higher nightmare frequency, while threats and abuse involving penetration were related to higher degrees of distress associated with nightmares. In conclusion, the present study provides preliminary data indicating that perceived social support may affect the nature of sleep difficulties in sexual abuse victims. Also, more severe forms of sexual abuse are related to higher levels of sleep difficulties.
PubMed ID
22204947 View in PubMed
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Mental readiness for maritime international operation: procedures developed by Norwegian navy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263181
Source
Int Marit Health. 2014;65(2):93-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Sverre Sanden
Bjørn Helge Johnsen
Jarle Eid
Jan Sommerfelt-Pettersen
Vilhelm Koefoed
Roar Størksen
Atle Røsseland
Hans Olav Neteland
Per Inge Wetteland
Eirik Veum Wilhelmsen
Source
Int Marit Health. 2014;65(2):93-7
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Humans
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - prevention & control
Mental health
Military Personnel - psychology
Naval Medicine
Norway
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - prevention & control
Occupational Health
Abstract
Seafarer's mental health is vital for a well-functioning organisation. Neglecting mental health status on board could be extremely costly for both the crew affected as well as the company. The present article outlines an extensive programme implemented in the Royal Norwegian Navy for personnel deployed in international operations. The challenges involved in international operations bare similarities to onboard personnel in civilian maritime operations. The program utilised by the Royal Norwegian Navy is extensive and not immediately applicable to civilian maritime companies. However, elements of this program could be used with limited resources. Questionnaire based screening, before, during and at the end of a contract period could result in early detections of mental health problems and increased retaining of personnel. This should be done by health professionals. Early targeting of at risk personnel could prevent serious costs for the individual as well as the company.
PubMed ID
25231333 View in PubMed
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15 records – page 1 of 2.