The serotonin 2C (HTR2C) receptor has been implicated in suicide-related behaviours, however there are not many studies to date about HTR2C and suicidality. We studied HTR2C haplotypes in suicide attempters, where our sample composed of 306 families with at least one member affected by bipolar disorder. HTR2C (Cys23Ser and a common STR in the promoter) variants were analyzed with respect to attempter status and the severity of suicidal behaviour. The X-linked haplotype analysis in relation to suicide attempt did not reveal any significant association. Furthermore, we performed a particular gene-gene interaction for the X-linked serotonergic genes (HTR2C and MAOA), and found no association among this intergenic haplotype combination and suicidal behaviour in bipolar disorder.
Both microarray and candidate molecule studies have demonstrated that protein and mRNA expression of syntaxin and other genes involved in synaptic function are altered in the cerebral cortex of patients with schizophrenia.
Genetic association between polymorphic markers in the syntaxin 1A gene and schizophrenia was assessed in a matched case-control sample of 192 pairs, and in an independent sample of 238 nuclear families.
In the family-based sample, a significant genetic association was found between schizophrenia and one of the four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested: an intron 7 SNP (transmission disequilibrium test [TDT] chi(2) = 5.898; df = 1; p =.015, family-based association test [FBAT] z = 2.280, p =.023). When the results for the TDT and case-control analyses were combined, the association was stronger (n = 430; z(c) = 2.859; p =.004). Haplotype analysis supported the association with several significant values that appear to be driven by the intron 7 SNP.
The results should be treated with caution until replicated, but this is the first report of a genetic association between syntaxin 1A and schizophrenia.
Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, McGill University, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Canada; Departamento de Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Ramiro Barcelos, 2350 Largo Eduardo Zaccaro Faraco, 90035-903 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Studies in adults show associations between the hypofunctional seven-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), increased eating behaviour and/or obesity, particularly in females. We examined whether 7R is associated with total caloric intake and/or food choices in pre-schoolers.
150 four-year-old children taking part in a birth cohort study in Canada were administered a snack test meal in a laboratory setting. Mothers also filled out a food frequency questionnaire to address childrens' habitual food consumption. Total caloric and individual macronutrient intakes during the snack meal and specific types of foods as reported in the food diaries were compared across 7R allele carriers vs. non-carriers, using current BMI as a co-variate.
We found significant sex by genotype interactions for fat and protein intake during the snack test. Post hoc testing revealed that in girls, but not boys, 7R carriers ate more fat and protein than did non-carriers. Based on the food diaries, across both sexes, 7R carriers consumed more portions of ice cream and less vegetables, eggs, nuts and whole bread, suggesting a less healthy pattern of habitual food consumption.
The 7R allele of DRD4 influences macronutrient intakes and specific food choices as early as four years of age. The specific pattern of results further suggests that prior associations between the 7R allele and adult overeating/obesity may originate in food choices observable in the preschool years. Longitudinal follow-up of these children will help establish the relevance of these findings for obesity risk and prevention.
Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder with suggestive genetic vulnerability component. We evaluated the association of genetic variants in the dopaminergic receptor genes (DRD1-3s) with risk for gambling in healthy subjects using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI). Healthy Caucasian subjects who had gambled at least once in their lifetime (n=242) were included in the analysis. Gender was not associated with the CPGI, while younger age was associated with higher CPGI scores. We have found that none of the single polymorphisms investigated on DRD1 and DRD3 were associated with CPGI scores in healthy subjects. However, we observed trends for association on the TaqIA/rs1800497 polymorphism (P=0.10) and the haplotype flanking DRD2 (G/C/A rs11604671/rs4938015/rs2303380; P=0.06). Both trends were associated with lower CPGI score. Our results provide further evidence for the role of dopamine D2-like receptor in addiction susceptibility.
Excessive or deficient levels of extracellular dopamine have been hypothesized to contribute to a broad spectrum of mood, motor, and thought abnormalities, and dopaminergic system genes have been implicated in aggressive behaviour from animal and human studies. OBJECTIVE. We examined selected members of the dopaminergic system genes for association with child aggression.
We analyzed polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter DAT1/SLC6A3, dopamine receptor DRD2, and DRD4 genes in our sample of pervasive childhood aggression consisting of 144 cases paired with 144 healthy controls, matched for sex and ethnicity.
Aggressive children were significantly more likely to have the at least one copy of the G allele for the DRD2 A-241G polymorphism (genotypic P=0.02; allelic P=0.01). The DRD2 rs1079598 CC genotype was overrepresented in aggressive children compared to controls (genotype P=0.04). The DRD2 TaqIA T allele (P=0.01) and the TT genotype (P=0.01) were also significantly overrepresented in aggressive children.
Our preliminary results suggest that three polymorphisms in DRD2 are associated with childhood aggression. Future studies are required to replicate the current results and to further explore the relationship between the dopamine system and aggressive behaviour in children.
Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for cases versus controls using single nucleotide polymorphism microarray data have shown promising findings for complex neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD).
Here we describe a comprehensive genome-wide study of bipolar disorder (BD), cross-referencing analysis from a family-based study of 229 small families with association analysis from over 950 cases and 950 ethnicity-matched controls from the UK and Canada. Further, loci identified in these analyses were supported by pathways identified through pathway analysis on the samples.
Although no genome-wide significant markers were identified, the combined GWAS findings have pointed to several genes of interest that support GWAS findings for BD from other groups or consortia, such as at SYNE1 on 6q25, PPP2R2C on 4p16.1, ZNF659 on 3p24.3, CNTNAP5 (2q14.3), and CDH13 (16q23.3). This apparent corroboration across multiple sites gives much confidence to the likelihood of genetic involvement in BD at these loci. In particular, our two-stage strategy found association in both our combined case/control analysis and the family-based analysis on 1q21.2 (closest gene: sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 gene, S1PR1) and on 1q24.1 near the gene TMCO1, and at CSMD1 on 8p23.2, supporting several previous GWAS reports for BD and for schizophrenia. Pathway analysis suggests association of pathways involved in calcium signalling, neuropathic pain signalling, CREB signalling in neurons, glutamate receptor signalling and axonal guidance signalling.
The findings presented here show support for a number of genes previously implicated genes in the etiology of BD, including CSMD1 and SYNE1, as well as evidence for previously unreported genes such as the brain-expressed genes ADCY2, NCALD, WDR60, SCN7A and SPAG16.
Cites: PLoS Genet. 2006 Dec;2(12):e19017194218
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 5;106(18):7501-619416921
Based on the dopaminergic hypothesis, the dopamine D(1) receptor gene (DRD1) is considered to be a good candidate gene involved in the susceptibility of bipolar disorder (BP). Genetic association between three DRD1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-800T/C, -48A/G, and 1403T/C) and bipolar type I (BP I) disorder was performed in a case-control sample of Sardinian origin (170 BP I and 209 controls) and in an enlarged sample (229 families) of BP I trios from Toronto. The haplotype analyses generated significant global chi-square in both samples (P-value 0.024 in Toronto and 0.00042 in Sardinian). The main representative haplotypes in both samples were the -800T/-48A/1403C and the -800C/-48G/1403T. Considering each group individually, the -800C/-48G/1403T was transmitted more frequently from parents to BP I probands in Toronto sample (nominally P-value = 0.047) and was more frequent in cases than in control subjects in Sardinian sample although showing no significant evidence of association (nominally P-value = 0.16) When the estimated haplotype counts of both samples were combined, the global chi(2) was significant (P-value = 0.00085) and the nominal P-value for the haplotype -800C/-48G/1403T was 0.01. The fact that the same haplotype shows a similar trend for association in samples originating from different ethnic backgrounds seems to imply that the -800C/-48G/1403T haplotype may be considered as a risk factor for BP I disorder.
The human p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53) is considered as a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia because of its functions in neurodevelopment. To test for an association between TP53 and schizophrenia, both the case-control study and the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) were performed on genotype data from eight polymorphisms in TP53. Our samples included 286 Toronto schizophrenia cases and 264 controls, and 163 Portuguese nuclear families. In the Toronto case-control study significant differences of allele frequencies of the CAA Ins/Del (p=0.027) and the 16bp Ins/Del (p=0.022) were detected. In TDT analysis we found significant differences for transmission of the CAA Ins/Del (p=0.017) in Portuguese schizophrenia families. Haplotype analysis also showed a significant association between TP53 and schizophrenia. These results provide further evidence that TP53 may play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic component, and may involve autoimmune processes. Support for this latter hypothesis comes from the identification of a subgroup of children, described by the term pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), with onset of OCD symptoms following streptococcal infections. Genes involved in immune response therefore represent possible candidate genes for OCD, including the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) gene, which plays an important role in mediating the complement cascade in the immune system. Four polymorphisms in the MOG gene, a dinucleotide CA repeat (MOG2), a tetranucleotide TAAA repeat (MOG4), and 2 intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms, C1334T and C10991T, were investigated for the possibility of association with OCD using 160 nuclear families with an OCD proband. We examined the transmission of alleles of these four polymorphisms with the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). A biased transmission of the 459-bp allele (allele 2: chi2 = 5.255, P = 0.022) of MOG4 was detected, while MOG2, C1334T, and C10991T showed no statistically significant bias in the transmission of alleles. The transmission of the C1334T.MOG2.C10991T.MOG4 haplotype 22.214.171.124 (chi2 = 6.426, P = 0.011) was also significant. Quantitative analysis using the family-based association test (FBAT) was significant for MOG4 in total Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale severity score (allele 2: z = 2.334, P = 0.020). Further investigations combining genetic, pathological, and pharmacological strategies, are warranted.
The N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDAR) act in the CNS as regulators of the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and GABA. It has been suggested that a weakened glutamatergic tone increases the risk of sensory overload and of exaggerated responses in the monoaminergic system, which is consistent with the symptomatology of schizophrenia. We studied two silent polymorphisms in GRIN1. GRIN1/1 is a G/C substitution localized on the 5' untranslated region; GRIN1/10 is an A/G substitution localized in exon 6 of GRIN1. Minor allele frequencies in our sample were calculated to be 0.05 and 0.2 respectively. We genotyped 86 nuclear families and 91 ethnically matched case-control pairs. Both samples were collected from the Toronto area. We tested the hypothesis that GRIN1 polymorphisms were associated with schizophrenia using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and comparing allele frequencies between cases and controls. The results are as follows: GRIN1/1: chi(2) = 2.19, P = 0.14; GRIN1/10: chi(2) = 1.5, P = 0.22. For the case-control sample: GRIN1/1: chi(2) = 0.013, P = 0.908; GRIN1/10: chi(2) = 0.544, P = 0.461. No significant results were obtained. Haplotype analyses showed a borderline significant result for the 2,1 haplotype (chi(2) = 3.86, P-value = 0.049). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) to evaluate the association between genetic makeup and age at onset was performed, with no significant results: GRIN1/1, F[df = 2] = 0.42, P-value = 0.659; GRIN1/10, F[df = 2] = 0.16, P-value = 0.853. We are currently collecting additional samples to increase the power of the analyses.