Proteoglycans (PG) have important effects on the mechanical properties of tissues, and the phenotype of various structural cells. Little is known about changes in PG deposition in the airways in animal models of asthma. We studied changes in PG in the airway wall of Brown Norway rats sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) and exposed to repeated OA challenge. Control (Sal) animals were sensitized and challenged with saline. After the 3rd challenge, animals were sacrificed and lungs fixed in formalin. Tissue sections were incubated with antibodies to the small, leucine-rich PG, decorin and biglycan, and collagen type I. Airways were classified according to basement membrane perimeter (Pbm) length (/=3mm). Decorin, biglycan and collagen type I, were increased in the airways of OA vs Sal rats. Remodeling was most prominent in central airways. The distribution of PG differed with respect to the subepithelial vs airway smooth muscle (ASM) vs adventitial layer. Whereas biglycan was readily detected within the ASM, decorin and collagen were detected outside the ASM, and especially in the adventitial layer. Differences in the distribution of these molecules within the layers of the airway wall may reflect their specific functional roles.
BACKGROUND: The function of CD8+ T-cell subsets in mediating late allergic responses is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test the hypothesis that CD8+ alphabeta T cells are proinflammatory in the airways in vivo by using a well-characterized animal model and the technique of adoptive transfer. METHODS: Brown Norway rats were administered CD8 + alphabeta T cells (10 6 ) intraperitoneally purified from lymph node cells of either naive or ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats and were challenged with aerosolized OVA 2 days later. Control rats were sensitized to 100 mug of OVA in Al(OH) 3 subcutaneously or sham sensitized to saline and were OVA challenged 2 weeks later. RESULTS: The OVA-sensitized and OVA-challenged group and the recipients of OVA-primed CD8+ alphabeta T cells had significant late airway responses calculated from lung resistance measured for an 8-hour period after challenge compared with the naive CD8 + alphabeta T cell-transferred group and the sham-sensitized control group. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased in the OVA-sensitized group and the OVA-primed CD8+ alphabeta T-cell recipients compared with numbers in the naive CD8+ alphabeta T-cell recipients and the sham-sensitized control group. IL-4 and IL-5 cytokine mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased in the OVA-sensitized group and the OVA-primed CD8+ alphabeta T-cell recipients compared with that in the sham-sensitized group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that antigen-primed CD8 + alphabeta T cells might have a proinflammatory role in allergen-driven airway responses in the rat.
BACKGROUND: Gamma-delta (gammadelta) T cells regulate immune responses to foreign protein at mucosal surfaces. Whether they can modify allergen-induced early (EAR) and late airway responses (LAR) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We have tested the hypothesis that the CD8+ subtype of gammadelta T cells decreases allergen-induced LAR and airway eosinophilia in the rat. METHODS: Brown Norway rats were administered, intraperitoneally, 3.5 x 10(4) lymph node CD8+gammadelta T cells from naive or sensitized rats. The recipients were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) in Al(OH)(3) 3 days after cell transfer and challenged with aerosolized OVA 14 days later. Serum IgE was measured before allergen challenge. After challenge, lung resistance was monitored for 8 hours and then bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was analyzed for eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-gamma messenger RNA-expressing cells. RESULTS: gammadelta T cells from naive donors significantly decreased LAR in OVA-challenged sensitized rats, whereas MBP(+) eosinophils were decreased by both gammadelta T cells from naive and sensitized donors. EAR and serum IgE levels were unchanged. The expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 by BAL cells of gammadelta T cell recipients was attenuated compared with OVA-challenged controls. This was accompanied by an increase in the expression of IFN-gamma. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a suppressive role of CD8+gammadelta T cells on allergic airway responses. However, only gammadelta T cells from naive donors inhibit LAR.
EGF receptor (EGFR) is involved in cell differentiation and proliferation in airways and may trigger cytokine production by T cells. We hypothesized that EGFR inhibition at the time of allergic sensitization may affect subsequent immune reactions. Brown Norway rats were sensitized with OVA, received the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1478 from days 0 to 7 and OVA challenge on day 14. OVA-specific IgE in serum and cytokines and chemokines in BAL were measured 24 h after challenge. To evaluate effects on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), rats were sensitized, treated with AG1478, intranasally challenged, and then AHR was assessed. Furthermore chemotactic activity of BALF for CD4(+) T cells was examined. The eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BAL were increased by OVA and only the lymphocytes were reduced by AG1478. OVA significantly enhanced IL-6 concentration in BAL, which was inhibited by AG1478. However AHR, OVA-specific IgE and IL-4 mRNA expression in CD4(+) T cells were not affected by AG1478. BALF from OVA-sensitized/challenged rats induced CD4(+) T-cell migration, which was inhibited by both AG1478 treatment in vivo and neutralization of IL-6 in vitro. EGFR activation during sensitization may affect the subsequent influx of CD4(+) T cells to airways, mainly mediated through IL-6.
Asthma is the leading serious pediatric chronic illness in the United States, affecting 7.1 million children. The prevalence of asthma in children under 4 years of age has increased dramatically in the last 2 decades. Existing evidence suggests that this increase in prevalence derives from early environmental exposures acting on a pre-existing asthma-susceptible genotype. We studied the origins of asthma susceptibility in developing lung in rat strains that model the distinct phenotypes of airway hyperresponsiveness (Fisher rats) and atopy (brown Norway [BN] rats). Postnatal BN rat lungs showed increased epithelial proliferation and tracheal goblet cell hyperplasia. Fisher pups showed increased lung resistance at age 2 weeks, with elevated neutrophils throughout the postnatal period. Diverse transcriptomic signatures characterized the distinct respiratory phenotypes of developing lung in both rat models. Linear regression across age and strain identified developmental variation in expression of 1,376 genes, and confirmed both strain and temporal regulation of lung gene expression. Biological processes that were heavily represented included growth and development (including the T Box 1 transcription factor [Tbx5], the epidermal growth factor receptor [Egfr], the transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 [Tgfbr1i1]), extracellular matrix and cell adhesion (including collagen and integrin genes), and immune function (including lymphocyte antigen 6 (Ly6) subunits, IL-17b, Toll-interacting protein, and Ficolin B). Genes validated by quantitative RT-PCR and protein analysis included collagen III alpha 1 Col3a1, Ly6b, glucocorticoid receptor and Importin-13 (specific to the BN rat lung), and Serpina1 and Ficolin B (specific to the Fisher lung). Innate differences in patterns of gene expression in developing lung that contribute to individual variation in respiratory phenotype are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma.
BACKGROUND: CD8+T cells can suppress allergen-induced late airway responses (LARs) and airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the suppression of LARs and airway eosinophilia by CD8+T cells is IFN-gamma mediated, we tested the effects of adoptively transferred CD8+T cells, in which IFN-gamma synthesis was inhibited by an antisense (AS) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), on the airway responses of a rat model of allergic asthma. METHODS: CD8+T cells were harvested from the cervical lymph nodes of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized Brown Norway rats for administration to other actively sensitized syngeneic rats. CD8+T cells (2 x 10(6)) were incubated for 6 hours with 2 micromol/L AS ODN or sense ODN and were injected intraperitoneally into recipients; inhibition of IFN-gamma expression in vitro by AS ODN was shown by means of flow cytometry. Two days later, rats were challenged with aerosolized OVA. RESULTS: OVA-induced LAR and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid eosinophilia were suppressed by sense ODN-treated CD8+T cells. IFN-gamma expression in BAL cells was elevated in these animals. IFN-gamma expression in BAL cells was at control levels in recipients of AS ODN-treated CD8+ cells, confirming the success of the AS treatment in vivo. BAL eosinophilia was also largely restored in the AS ODN treatment group. In contrast, the CD8+T cell-induced suppression of the LAR was not significantly affected by AS ODN pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that CD8+T cells inhibit airway eosinophilia through secretion of IFN-gamma but may suppress the LAR by means of other mechanisms.
BACKGROUND: The role of CD8+ T cells in the immune response to airway challenge with an allergen is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that resident naive CD8+ T cells modulate the magnitude of CD4+ T cell-dependent allergic airway responses. METHODS: Cervical lymph node CD4+ T cells (2 x 10(6)) were harvested from ovalbumin (OVA)- or sham-sensitized rats and injected intraperitoneally into naive Brown Norway recipients. The recipients were treated with a CD8alpha mAb (OX-8) to deplete the resident CD8+ T cells (n = 12) or mouse ascites (n = 12). Two days after adoptive transfer, the recipient animals were OVA challenged, lung resistance was measured for 8 hours, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed. RESULTS: After OVA challenge, primed CD4-transferred CD8-depleted rats had larger early airway responses and late airway responses compared with primed CD4-transferred CD8-nondepleted rats (early airway responses: 158.6% +/- 19.2% vs 115.7% +/- 5.9%, P