The incidence of microscopic colitis (MC) has increased over the previous decades. In addition to smoking and drugs, currently unidentified environmental factors may have a role. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific dietary or other lifestyle factors were associated with the development of MC.
The population-based cohort Malmö Diet and Cancer Study of 28?095 individuals was examined. Information about dietary habits was collected by a modified diet history method. Data on anthropometry were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were collected by questionnaires. Cases of MC were identified in medical registers. Associations were estimated using Cox regression analysis.
During a 22-year period, 135 patients were diagnosed with MC. Intakes of protein, carbohydrates, sucrose, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, fibre and zinc were not associated with MC. We could verify the previously reported association between MC and smoking (hazard ratio (HR): 2.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-3.84) and the female gender (HR: 3.57; 95% CI: 2.22-5.74). High alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk for MC (HR: 1.89 for the highest quartile; 95% CI: 0.82-4.33, P for trend=0.032). In a post hoc analysis, alcohol intake including all patients independently of consumption seemed to reduce the smoking-related risk.
Despite a large cohort and a long follow-up period, we could not detect any dietary risk factors for MC. The aetiological mechanisms behind the positive impact of smoking and alcohol on MC risk should be investigated.
BACKGROUND: The incidence of peptic ulcer disease was expected to decrease following the introduction of acid inhibitors and Helicobacter pylori eradication. AIM: To analyse possible changes in the incidence of bleeding peptic ulcer, treatment and mortality over time. METHODS: Residents of Malmö hospitalized for bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcer disease during 1987-2004 were identified in hospital databases (n = 1610). The material was divided into 6-year periods to identify changes over time. All patients who had been submitted to emergency surgery (n = 137) were reviewed. RESULTS: The incidence rate for bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcers decreased by one half in males and by one-third in females and emergency operations decreased significantly (9.2%, 7.5% and 5.7% during the three time periods, respectively (P
According to several studies breast cancer is more common among former smokers. This study explores whether this association has any relationship with anthropometric measurements or blood lipid levels. The 2082 ex-smokers (mean age 49.9 years) in the Malmö Preventive Cohort were followed for an average of 13.3 years using official cancer registries. This yielded 93 incident breast cancer cases. Oestrogen receptor (ER) status was assessed by an immunological method. Incidence of breast cancer covaried with height, body mass index, weight gain and cholesterol levels. None of these associations reached statistical significance. Incidence of breast cancer increased over quartiles of serum triglycerides, Ptrend: 0.02, relative risk (RR) for triglycerides as a continuous variable: 1.46 (1.21-1.77). Nineteen tumours were ER negative; this subgroup was similarly related to high triglycerides, 1.76 (1.40-2.21). All results were similar when BMI and cholesterol levels were entered into the model. It is concluded that breast cancer incidence covaries with triglyceride levels in ex-smokers.
High plasma levels of oestrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk. If smoking, as has been suggested, have both a tumour initiating mutagenic effect and a protective anti-oestrogenic effect, one would assume that smokers who give up smoking have the highest incidence of breast cancer. This was evaluated in the follow-up of a cohort of 10,902 women of whom 4,359 were premenopausal. Record-linkage with official cancer registries yielded 416 incident cases during an average follow-up of 13.6 years. The adjusted relative risk in all ex-smokers was 1.31 (1.02-1.69), as compared to never smokers, and in premenopausal ex-smokers it was 1.57 (1.07-2.30). Breast cancer incidence in premenopausal ex-smokers was inversely related to time since cessation, (p for trend = 0.01), and was highest among the women who had given-up smoking less than 12 months before screening: 2.76 (1.55-4.91). There was no significant association between current smoking and breast cancer risk. We conclude that incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women who have given up smoking is higher than it is in smokers and never smokers. To what extent this may be related to endocrine effects associated with smoking cessation remains to be evaluated.
The carcinogenicity of cigar and pipe smoking is established but the effect of detailed smoking characteristics is less well defined. We examined the effects on cancer incidence of exclusive cigar and pipe smoking, and in combination with cigarettes, among 102395 men from Denmark, Germany, Spain, Sweden and UK in the EPIC cohort. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer during a median 9 year follow-up from ages 35-70 years were estimated using proportional hazards models. Compared to never smokers, HR of cancers of lung, upper aero-digestive tract and bladder combined was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.8) for exclusive cigar smokers (16 cases), 3.0 (2.1, 4.5) for exclusive pipe smokers (33 cases) and 5.3 (4.4, 6.4) for exclusive cigarette smokers (1069 cases). For each smoking type, effects were stronger in current than in ex-smokers, and in inhalers than in non-inhalers. Ever smokers of both cigarettes and cigars (HR 5.7 (4.4, 7.3), 120 cases) and cigarettes and pipes (5.1 (4.1, 6.4), 247 cases) had as high a raised risk as had exclusive cigarette smokers. In these smokers, the magnitude of the raised risk was smaller if they had switched to cigars or pipes only (i.e. quit cigarettes) and had not compensated with greater smoking intensity. Cigar and pipe smoking is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. The lower cancer risk of cigar and pipe smokers as compared to cigarette smokers is explained by lesser degree of inhalation and lower smoking intensity. (c) 2010 UICC.
Effects of smoking on breast cancer risk remains controversial. Tar products have been claimed to increase risk, antioestrogenic effects to reduce risk. Another possibility is that associations to smoking have been confounded by diet. The increasing incidence of breast cancer from 1960 to 1994 in Sweden is parallel to that of lung cancer and the increasing proportion of female smokers. The incidence of endometrial and colon cancer was in premenopausal women negatively and in postmenopausal women positively related to the incidence of breast cancer. Possible explanations and hypotheses to the different co-variance between breast cancer and lung, endometrial and colon cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women are discussed from the perspectives of smoking, sex hormones and diet. It is concluded that the strong and specific positive relationship between breast and lung cancer in premenopausal women is compatible with the hypothesis that aromatic hydrocarbons may be involved in the causation of disease.
Exposure to hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) has consistently been associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer, particularly of small tumours. Other tumour characteristics in relation to HRT have received less scientific attention. Our aim in this population-based prospective cohort study was to assess whether HRT is associated with an increased incidence of breast-cancer subgroups defined in terms of stage, type (according to the WHO system), Nottingham grade and the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). Evaluation was based on a cohort of 5,865 post-menopausal women followed for an average of 9.8 years. Twenty percent of women reported current use of HRT at the time of the baseline interview. Record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry and local clinical registries identified 141 incident invasive breast-cancer cases. All tumours were reclassified by 1 pathologist. The incidence of breast cancer in HRT users was 377/10(5) and in non-users 221/10(5) person-years [relative risk (RR) = 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.52]. This risk remained statistically significant after adjustment for established risk factors in a Cox proportional hazards analysis (RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.12-2.45). Among HRT users, there was over-representation of cases with stage I tumours (adjusted RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.44-3.76), of lobular carcinomas (RR = 4.38, 95% CI 1.60-12.0) and of tubular tumours (RR = 4.81, 95% CI 1.37-16.8). Nottingham grade I/II carcinomas (RR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.29-3.16) and cases with NPI
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess whether in an urban population stage at breast cancer diagnosis is related to area of living and to what extent intra-urban differences in breast cancer mortality are related to incidence respectively stage at diagnosis. DESIGN: National registries were used to identify cases. Mortality in 17 residential areas was studied in relation to incidence and stage distribution using linear regression analysis. Areas with high and low breast cancer mortality, incidence and proportion of stage II+ tumours at diagnosis were also compared in terms of their sociodemographic profile. SETTING: City of Malmö in southern Sweden. PATIENTS: The 1675 incident breast cancer cases and 448 deaths that occurred in women above 45 years of age in Malmö 1986-96. MAIN RESULTS: Average annual age standardised breast cancer mortality ranged between residential areas, from 35/10(5) to 107/10(5), p = 0.04. Mortality of breast cancer was not correlated to incidence, r = 0.22, p = 0.39. The ratio of stage II+/0-I cancer incidence varied between areas from 0.45 to 1.99 and was significantly correlated to breast cancer mortality, r = 0.53, p = 0.03. Areas with high proportion of stage II+ cancers and high mortality/incidence ratio were characterised by a high proportion of residentials receiving income support, being foreigners and current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Within this urban population there were marked differences in breast cancer mortality between residential areas. Stage at diagnosis, but not incidence, contributed to the pattern of mortality. Areas with high proportion of stage II+ tumours differed unfavourably in several sociodemographic aspects from the city average.
In order to investigate potential selection bias in population-based cohort studies, participants (n = 28098) and non-participants (n = 40807) in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) were compared with regard to cancer incidence and mortality. MDCS participants were also compared with participants in a mailed health survey with regard to subjective health, socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle. Cancer incidence prior to recruitment was lower in non-participants, Cox proportional hazards analysis yielded a relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval of 0.95 (0.90-1.00), compared with participants. During recruitment, cancer incidence was higher in non-participants, RR: 1.08 (1.01-1.17). Mortality was higher in non-participants both during, 3.55 (3.13-4.03), and following the recruitment period, 2.21 (2.03-2.41). The proportion reporting good health was higher in the MDCS than in the mailed health survey (where 74.6% participated), but the socio-demographic structure was similar. We conclude that mortality is higher in non-participants than in participants during recruitment and follow-up. It is also suggested that non-participants may have a lower cancer incidence prior to recruitment but a higher incidence during the recruitment period.