Three cases of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) are presented. One of these was in a 43-year-old patient with AIDS who was infected in Southern Spain. Another was in a man aged 25 years infected in West Africa. These cases are the first two adults to be reported in Denmark. The third case was an 18 month old previously healthy boy, infected in Southern Spain. The symptomtology, diagnosis and treatment of the disease are discussed and it is stressed that serological diagnostic tests have limited value in HIV positive patients.
To evaluate if women with HPV16 positive CIN2 and CIN3 are diagnosed at a younger age.
We conducted a population-based cohort study including more than 40,000 women having a liquid based cervical cytology sample taken as part of routine screening. HPV analysis was performed using Hybrid Capture 2 and LiPAv2. The study population was linked to the Danish Pathology Data Bank to retrieve information on subsequent cervical histology. We included HR HPV positive CIN2/3 samples, comprising 173 CIN2 and 467 CIN3 lesions. Due to a high number of multiple concurrent HPV infections, the causative HPV type was assigned to a hierarchically group.
In CIN3, the estimated proportion of lesions positive for HPV16 was 68.1% among women aged 20 years and decreased to 38.9% among women aged 50 years. A decrease in HPV16 positivity with increasing age was also observed in CIN2. In a multinomial logistic regression analysis, young age was strongly associated with HPV16 positivity in CIN3 lesions (OR=0.46 per 10 year increase in age, 95% CI: 0.32-0.65). The proportion of HPV16 and/or 18 positive lesions among women diagnosed with CIN2 and CIN3 below 30 years of age was 44% and 75%, respectively.
HPV16 positivity was significantly associated with younger age at diagnosis of CIN3. In a population vaccinated against HPV16 and 18, we will experience a shift to older ages in cervical precancerous lesions. These findings may imply that cervical cancer screening programs could start at an older age in HPV vaccinated populations.
Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in Denmark compared with that in women in the general population.
We studied a nationwide cohort of WLWH and a cohort of 15 age-matched women per WLWH from the general population for the period 1999-2010. Pathology samples were obtained from The Danish Pathology Data Bank, which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results.
We followed 1140 WLWH and 17?046 controls with no prior history of ICC or hysterectomy for 9491 and 156?865 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the overall incidences of CIN1 or worse (CIN1+), CIN2+ and CIN3+, but not ICC, were higher in WLWH and predicted by young age and a CD4 count
We evaluated the significance of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and serum was prospectively collected in 76 consecutive HIV-infected patients with a primary episode of PCP, as well as in ten healthy control subjects. Patients were found to have elevated levels of IL-8 in BAL fluid compared to control subjects (p