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Changes in seasonal mortalities with improvement in home heating in England and Wales from 1964 to 1984.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67955
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 1989 Jun;33(2):71-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1989
Author
W R Keatinge
S R Coleshaw
J. Holmes
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 1989 Jun;33(2):71-6
Date
Jun-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Automobiles
Cold Climate - adverse effects
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage - adverse effects
England
Heating
Humans
Mortality
Prescriptions, Drug
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Smoking - adverse effects
Time Factors
Wales
Abstract
Changes in summer (July-September) and winter (January-March) mortalities of people aged 70-74 in England and Wales from 1964 to 1984 were compared with possible causal factors. Summer mortalities were little affected by annual temperature or influenza epidemics and fell from 1972-1975 for all causes, coronary and respiratory causes, while cerebrovascular mortality fell more rapidly from that time. Cigarette consumption also fell from 1972-1975; falling consumptions of total fat from 1970 and saturated fat from 1972-1975 probably also contributed to the fall in arterial deaths, and likewise falls in prescription rates for tranquillisers and sedatives from 1976-1978 to the fall in respiratory deaths. From 1964 to 1984 use of central heating increased from 13% to 69% of households, domestic fuel consumption increased, and excess mortality in winter from respiratory disease declined by 69%, even relative to summer mortality and when adjusted for varying coldness of winters. The improvement was partly explained by a decline in influenza epidemics. By contrast, excess mortalities in winter from coronary and cerebrovascular disease, although rising in some early influenza epidemics, did not fall significantly as home heating improved. These thrombotic deaths together accounted for 56% of the total excess winter mortality by 1984. The findings support other indications that most of the excess mortality from arterial thrombosis in winter in England and Wales is due to brief excursions outdoors rather than to low indoor temperatures.
PubMed ID
2759722 View in PubMed
Less detail

Low and high thermal tolerance characteristics for unfed larvae of the winter tick Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae) with special reference to moose.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292090
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018 01; 9(1):25-30
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2018
Author
Christopher J Holmes
Cameron J Dobrotka
David W Farrow
Andrew J Rosendale
Joshua B Benoit
Peter J Pekins
Jay A Yoder
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA. Electronic address: holmescp@mail.uc.edu.
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018 01; 9(1):25-30
Date
01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animal Distribution
Animals
Cold Temperature
Deer
Dermacentor - growth & development - physiology
Feeding Behavior
Hot Temperature
Larva - growth & development - physiology
New Hampshire
Thermotolerance
Tick Infestations - parasitology - veterinary
Abstract
We report that larvae of the winter tick Dermacentor albipictus, the only stage that will quest for a host, can tolerate short-term cold shock down to -25°C and short-term heat shock as high as 46°C. Unlike a three host-tick, larvae of D. albipictus have no preconditioning response to low or high temperature exposure by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening, and poor ability to acclimate to low and high temperature extremes. Thermal tolerance limits were not improved as the result of larval clustering, and there was only a minimal effect due to changes in photoperiod. These larvae are freeze intolerant and die at higher temperatures (-5 to -10°C) from contact with ice by inoculative freezing. In absence of cold-associated resistance mechanisms, winter survival requires that larvae procure a host before the first snow cover. Their low and high temperature tolerance, however, is a key survival element that adapts them for off-host periods during summer, which in the arctic could allow for northern expansion.
PubMed ID
29103951 View in PubMed
Less detail

Low and high thermal tolerance characteristics for unfed larvae of the winter tick Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae) with special reference to moose.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286993
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018 Jan;9(1):25-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2018
Author
Christopher J Holmes
Cameron J Dobrotka
David W Farrow
Andrew J Rosendale
Joshua B Benoit
Peter J Pekins
Jay A Yoder
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018 Jan;9(1):25-30
Date
Jan-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
We report that larvae of the winter tick Dermacentor albipictus, the only stage that will quest for a host, can tolerate short-term cold shock down to -25°C and short-term heat shock as high as 46°C. Unlike a three host-tick, larvae of D. albipictus have no preconditioning response to low or high temperature exposure by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening, and poor ability to acclimate to low and high temperature extremes. Thermal tolerance limits were not improved as the result of larval clustering, and there was only a minimal effect due to changes in photoperiod. These larvae are freeze intolerant and die at higher temperatures (-5 to -10°C) from contact with ice by inoculative freezing. In absence of cold-associated resistance mechanisms, winter survival requires that larvae procure a host before the first snow cover. Their low and high temperature tolerance, however, is a key survival element that adapts them for off-host periods during summer, which in the arctic could allow for northern expansion.
PubMed ID
29103951 View in PubMed
Less detail

Nocturnal enuresis: economic impacts and self-esteem preliminary research results.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34496
Source
Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1997;183:65-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
K. Pugner
J. Holmes
Author Affiliation
Economists Advisory Group Ltd, London, UK.
Source
Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1997;183:65-9
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Cost of Illness
Costs and Cost Analysis
Data Collection
Enuresis - economics - psychology
Female
Germany
Great Britain
Humans
Male
Multicenter Studies
Quality of Life
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Self Concept
Sweden
Abstract
Bedwetting is a common complaint, affecting approximately 10% of 7-year old children in the developed world and causing an economic drain on society. Not only is the cost of nocturnal enuresis borne by the families, but also by national health services and state health insurance. Although previous studies have examined the direct costs of nocturnal enuresis, the current paper also investigates the indirect costs to some selected families, such as the extra housework that is involved. The total cost of having an enuretic child was estimated on a case study basis in five countries with results being reported here for three countries (Sweden, UK and Germany). The study considered costs over a period of 3 months, with questionnaires on self-perceived self-esteem being included for the child. The critical factors influencing overall costs were the number of wet nights per week, necessitating washing and drying, and the costs of the treatment itself. Overall, the study found that total costs of not treating enuresis in heavy bedwetters can be higher than with any of the treatment alternatives, which must be seen as an additional burden to families with a child suffering from lower self-esteem.
PubMed ID
9165612 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis. 1968;46:472-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1968
Author
S J Holmes
Source
Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis. 1968;46:472-7
Date
1968
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcoholism - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Canada
Health education
Humans
PubMed ID
5701473 View in PubMed
Less detail

6 records – page 1 of 1.