In order to survey trends in food habits the Danish Nutrition Council initiated two food frequency surveys, comprising ten nutritionally important foods, in 1995 and in 1998. Participants were men and women, 15-90 yrs, from similar population samples (n = 1007 in 1995, 1024 in 1998). Participation rate was 62% in 1995 and 63% in 1998. Data were collected by telephone interview. For six of the ten foods significant changes in consumption frequencies were observed: salad/raw vegetables, rice/pasta and fish were consumed more frequently in 1998, whereas consumption of meat, potatoes and fresh fruit had become less frequent. Average frequencies differed by 4-13%. In 1998 low-fat milk had become more common, whereas whole milk was now less common. More subjects now skipped fat spreads on their bread, but more chose spreads containing butterfat. Some, but not all, of the observed changes point in the right direction compared to recommendations. The results demonstrate that food habits are currently in a dynamic process.
Food costs for 30 children under dietary treatment for familial hypercholesterolaemia were compared with those of 105 other Danish children. The daily intake of macronutrients and the daily cost of the diet for each child were calculated from dietary intakes and average prices of 365 different food items. The mean +/- SE percentages of energy (E%) from fat in the diet of children with and without known familial hypercholesterolaemia were 23.6 +/- 0.8 E+ and 34.5 +/- 0.5 E%, respectively (P
In a random sample of young Danish adults (86 men and 115 women, 23-27 yr of age) maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), physical activity (PA), blood pressure, blood lipids, body fat content, and smoking habits were studied. Cholesterol, triglyceride and body fat related negatively to VO2max. The ratio HDL/total cholesterol was positively related to VO2max (r = 0.3, P
Foods to be included in a Danish self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were identified from food tables developed, together with data collected, for the survey 'Dietary habits in Denmark, 1985'. The questionnaire was to be used in a prospective study on diet, cancer and health, and the aim was to rank individuals with regard to intake of 19 different nutrients considered of prime importance in human carcinogenesis. The questionnaire for the dietary survey included 247 foods and recipes. From stepwise multiple regression analyses with the intake of each of the 19 nutrients as the dependent variable and the intake of the 247 foods and recipes as independent variables, the foods in the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability were considered for the final questionnaire. All relevant analyses were performed for the study group as a whole, for men and women separately, and in each gender for subgroups of energy intake. Taken together, the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability identified a total of 74 foods or recipes, which were important predictors of the intake of one or more of the nutrients considered. A few foods were excluded and a few foods were added to the final questionnaire based on common biological background information, and on information on foods providing important amounts of given nutrients, but which failed to contribute to regression analyses. The 92 foods and recipes, which were included in the final questionnaire provided altogether 81% of the average total supply of the nutrients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
In Denmark the official dietary guidelines and food recommendations are expressed in the Five Dietary advices and the Danish food circle. Such guidelines are entirely different from recommendations on nutrient intakes, which are expressed in terms of exact values and established through a more formal procedure. Some of the most fundamental principles for food recommendations given to the public are that they are perceived as consistent and based on a firm consensus, and that their relevance and translation into practical action is obvious to the public. When the situation in Denmark is compared to these principles the main issue turns out to be neither lack of consistency in recommendations issued by government agencies and voluntary health organisations, nor is it lack of consensus among the experts about the fundamental messages of the guidelines. A more important problem is that the public does not distinguish between formal recommendations from authorized sources, and a variety of advices from other sources as well as non-formal comments from individual scientists. A cause of serious concern is the fact that the Danish public seems to lack a realistic picture of what the dietary guidelines imply in terms of foods. A number of contradictions is built into the process of communicating dietary recommendations effectively to the public. These can only be solved if the process is planned on a long-term basis.
Food-based dietary guidelines in Denmark have usually been expressed in simple terms only and need to be elaborated. Quantitative recommendations on fruit and vegetable intake were issued in 1998, recommending 600 g/d (potatoes not included). This paper is based on a national dietary survey in 1995 (n = 3098, age range 1-80 years) supplemented with data from a simple frequency survey in 1995 (n = 1007, age range 15-80 years) and from the first national survey in 1985 (n = 2242, age range 15-80 years). Only data on adults are included in this paper. Fat intake, saturated fat in particular, is too high (median intake 37 %energy and 16 %energy, respectively). Main fat sources are separated fats (butter, margarine, oil, etc.: 40%), meat (18%), and dairy products (21%). Total fat intake decreased from 1985 to 1995 but fatty acid composition did not improve. Dietary fibre intake is from 18 to 22 g/d (women and men, respectively) with 62% from cereals, 24% from vegetables and 12% from fruit. Mean intake of vegetables and potatoes was from 200 to 250 g/d (women and men, respectively). Mean intake of fruit and vegetables (potatoes not included) was 277 g/d, or less than half of the new recommendation (600 g/d). Only 15% of participants in the frequency survey reported consuming both fruit and vegetables every day, and only 28% reported to do so almost every day. In conclusion, dietary intake in Denmark is characterized by a high intake of saturated fat and total fat, and by a relatively low intake of fruit and vegetables.
This study aimed at establishing and evaluating a simple method for surveilling trends in consumption of 10 nutritionally important foods. The method is based on food frequency questions combined with questions on the previous days intake, collected through telephone interviews. Participants (461 men, 546 women, 15-60+ yrs) came from a population sample. Between 22 and 69% consumed the foods in question as frequently as prescribed by the Danish food recommendations (lowest for fish and for vegetables, highest for potatoes/rice/pasta). Characteristic sex and age differences were observed, similar to findings from traditional, quantitative food surveys in Denmark. The food frequency results were confirmed by results from the previous day's intake. Crossing of frequencies for different foods gave additional information on consumption patterns. The results indicate that this very simple method may be a useful supplement to traditional quantitative dietary surveys for surveilling trends in food consumption. The Danish Nutrition Council therefore aims at doing similar surveys every other year.
A working group was established to evaluate the need for iodine enrichment in Denmark. Judged from studies of urinary iodine excretion and one dietary survey the intake of iodine in Denmark is low compared with recommended intakes. The occurrence of non-toxic goitre is relatively high; between 9 and 13% in elderly women. Furthermore, a high occurrence of toxic goitre has been seen in the western part of Denmark. On the other hand, an increased or a high intake of iodine may lead to hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis. The working group concluded that an increase in iodine intake in the Danish population is needed and the best way to achieve this is to iodize all salt. To avoid side effects of a sudden large increase in iodine intake the initial amount of iodine in salt will only be 2 ppm.
In a randomly selected sample of 88 men and 115 women, aged 23-27 years from Denmark, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) in four muscle groups and physical activity were studied. The VO2max was 48.0 ml.min-1.kg-1 and 39.6 ml.min-1.kg-1 for the men and the women, respectively. The MVC was 10% lower than in a comparable group of Danes of the same age and height studied 35 years ago. Only in men was sports activity directly related to VO2max (ml.min-1.kg-1; r = 0.31, P