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16-year excess all-cause mortality of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147637
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:400
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Lars J Hansen
Niels de Fine Olivarius
Volkert Siersma
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. l.hansen@gpract.ku.dk
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:400
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - mortality
Female
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Risk
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
Studies have shown that type 2 diabetic patients have higher all-cause mortality than people without diabetes, but it is less clear how diabetes affects mortality in elderly patients and to what degree mortality differs between diabetic men and women. The aim of the present study is to investigate the age- and sex-specific all-cause mortality pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes in comparison with the Danish background population.
Population-based cohort study of 1323 patients, diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes in 1989-92 and followed for 16 years. Median (interquartile range) age at diagnosis was 65.3 (55.8-73.6) years. The age- and sex-specific hazard rates were estimated for the cohort using the life table method and compared with the expected hazard rates calculated with Danish register data from the general population.
In comparison with the general population, diabetic patients had a 1.5-2.5 fold higher risk of dying depending on age. The over-mortality was higher for men than for women. It decreased with age in both sexes, and among patients over 80 years at diagnosis the difference between the observed and the expected survival was small.
We found an excess mortality of type 2 diabetic patients compared with the background population in all age groups. The excess mortality was most pronounced in men and in young patients.
Notes
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Cites: Diabetes Care. 1986 May-Jun;9(3):313-53731999
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 1991 Jun;151(6):1141-72043016
PubMed ID
19878574 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in marine mammals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6747
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2001 Apr 15;35(8):1593-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2001
Author
K. Kannan
J. Koistinen
K. Beckmen
T. Evans
J F Gorzelany
K J Hansen
P D Jones
E. Helle
M. Nyman
J P Giesy
Author Affiliation
National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Department of Zoology, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. kuruntha@msu.edu
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2001 Apr 15;35(8):1593-8
Date
Apr-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood - pharmacokinetics
Animals
Carnivora
Dolphins
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood - pharmacokinetics
Geography
Liver - chemistry
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seals, Earless
Seawater
Species Specificity
Whales
Abstract
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a perfluorinated molecule that has recently been identified in the sera of nonindustrially exposed humans. In this study, 247 tissue samples from 15 species of marine mammals collected from Florida, California, and Alaskan coastal waters; and northern Baltic Sea; the Arctic (Spitsbergen); and Sable Island in Canada were analyzed for PFOS. PFOS was detected in liver and blood of marine mammals from most locations including those from Arctic waters. The greatest concentrations of PFOS found in liver and blood were 1520 ng/g wet wt in a bottlenose dolphin from Sarasota Bay, FL, and 475 ng/mL in a ringed seal from the northern Baltic Sea (Bothnian Sea), respectively. No age-dependent increase in PFOS concentrations in marine mammals was observed in the samples analyzed. The occurrence of PFOS in marine mammals from the Arctic waters suggests widespread global distribution of PFOS including remote locations.
PubMed ID
11329707 View in PubMed
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Age at first birth, parity and risk of breast cancer in a Swedish population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature27271
Source
Br J Cancer. 1980 Nov;42(5):651-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1980
Author
H O Adami
J. Hansen
B. Jung
A J Rimsten
Source
Br J Cancer. 1980 Nov;42(5):651-8
Date
Nov-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Maternal Age
Middle Aged
Parity
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Sweden
Abstract
A case-control study was conducted over a period of 11 months in an area containing one-third of the Swedish population. One thousand and one patients participated, constituting 94% of all women newly diagnosed as having breast cancer within the area. They were compared with 1,001 age-matched, non-hospitalized controls without breast cancer, selected by paired sampling from a population register. The risk of breast cancer was slightly, but significantly, related to parity, the standardized relative risk (SRR) being 1.35 for nulliparous women as compared to ever parous. In the different parity groups a risk significantly lower than that for nulliparous women was found only for women with more than 2 children (SRR = 0.59) but the trend with parity was highly significant (P less than 0.001). Age at first birth was not found to be an important risk factor for breast cancer. SRR was lower than for nulliparous women in all groups of women with their first birth before the age of 35 years, but the difference was significant (P less than 0.05) only for those with the first birth between 20 and 24 (SSR = 0.69) and 25 and 29 (SRR = 0.69) years of age. The trend with age at first birth (P less than 0.05) disappeared after stratification for parity, suggesting that it was a confounding factor.
PubMed ID
7459205 View in PubMed
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Age at first primary as a determinant of the incidence of bilateral breast cancer. Cumulative and relative risks in a population-based case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature26647
Source
Cancer. 1985 Feb 1;55(3):643-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-1985
Author
H O Adami
R. Bergström
J. Hansen
Source
Cancer. 1985 Feb 1;55(3):643-7
Date
Feb-1-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aging
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - pathology
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary - epidemiology - pathology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Sweden
Abstract
This epidemiologic investigation comprised 1351 of 1423 women in a defined geographic area consecutively diagnosed as having a primary breast cancer. Simultaneous bilateral disease occurred in only 1 patient, whereas a history of previous cancer in the contralateral breast was reported by 65 patients. This prevalence was related to that of 23 previous cases in an age-matched control group of 1351 women from the same population. The relative risk of developing a second primary was 2.9 (95% confidence limit, 1.8-4.6) for the whole material and remained seemingly constant over several decades at a level predetermined by age at first diagnosis, namely 9.9 (95% confidence limit, 3.8-25.8) before the age of 50 and 1.9 (95% confidence limit, 1.1-3.2) after that age. The incidence ratio of bilateral to unilateral disease was used as an estimate of the lifetime risk of developing a second primary in this stable and well-defined population. This calculation revealed cumulative risk figures of 13.3% and 3.5% for women younger and older than 50 years, respectively, at first diagnosis. It was concluded that the occurrence of bilateral disease, which reflects a multicentric neoplastic transformation of the breast epithelium, is a characteristic of early-occurring (premenopausal) disease.
PubMed ID
3965112 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption, types of alcoholic beverages and risk of venous thromboembolism - the Tromsø Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134175
Source
Thromb Haemost. 2011 Aug;106(2):272-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Ida J Hansen-Krone
Sigrid K Brækkan
Kristin F Enga
Tom Wilsgaard
John-Bjarne Hansen
Author Affiliation
Hematological research group in Tromsø (HERG), Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. ida.j.hansen-krone@uit.no
Source
Thromb Haemost. 2011 Aug;106(2):272-8
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Alcoholic Beverages - adverse effects
Beer
Ethanol - poisoning
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Venous Thromboembolism - etiology - prevention & control
Wine
Abstract
Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to protect against cardiovascular diseases. The association between alcohol consumption, especially types of alcoholic beverages, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is less well described. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of alcohol consumption and different alcoholic beverages on risk of VTE. Information on alcohol consumption was collected by a self-administrated questionnaire in 26,662 subjects, aged 25-97 years, who participated in the Tromsø Study, in 1994-1995. Subjects were followed through September 1, 2007 with incident VTE as the primary outcome. There were 460 incident VTE-events during a median of 12.5 years of follow-up. Total alcohol consumption was not associated with risk of incident VTE. However, subjects consuming = 3 units of liquor per week had 53% increased risk of VTE compared to teetotalers in analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, cancer, previous cardiovascular disease, physical activity and higher education (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.33). Contrary, subjects with a wine intake of = 3 units/week had 22% reduced risk of VTE (HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.30), further adjustment for liquor and beer intake strengthened the protective effect of wine (HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.30-1.00). Frequent binge drinkers (= 1/week) had a 17% increased risk of VTE compared to teetotallers (HR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.66-2.09), and a 47% increased risk compared to non-binge drinkers (HR 1.47, 95% CI: 0.85-2.54). In conclusion, liquor consumption and binge drinking was associated with increased risk of VTE, whereas wine consumption was possibly associated with reduced risk of VTE.
PubMed ID
21614415 View in PubMed
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Among-individual diet variation within a lake trout ecotype: Lack of stability of niche use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303569
Source
Ecol Evol. 2021 Feb; 11(3):1457-1475
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2021
Author
Louise Chavarie
Kimberly L Howland
Les N Harris
Colin P Gallagher
Michael J Hansen
William M Tonn
Andrew M Muir
Charles C Krueger
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management Norwegian University of Life Sciences Ås Norway.
Source
Ecol Evol. 2021 Feb; 11(3):1457-1475
Date
Feb-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
In a polyphenic species, differences in resource use are expected among ecotypes, and homogeneity in resource use is expected within an ecotype. Yet, using a broad resource spectrum has been identified as a strategy for fishes living in unproductive northern environments, where food is patchily distributed and ephemeral. We investigated whether specialization of trophic resources by individuals occurred within the generalist piscivore ecotype of lake trout from Great Bear Lake, Canada, reflective of a form of diversity. Four distinct dietary patterns of resource use within this lake trout ecotype were detected from fatty acid composition, with some variation linked to spatial patterns within Great Bear Lake. Feeding habits of different groups within the ecotype were not associated with detectable morphological or genetic differentiation, suggesting that behavioral plasticity caused the trophic differences. A low level of genetic differentiation was detected between exceptionally large-sized individuals and other piscivore individuals. We demonstrated that individual trophic specialization can occur within an ecotype inhabiting a geologically young system (8,000-10,000 yr BP), a lake that sustains high levels of phenotypic diversity of lake trout overall. The characterization of niche use among individuals, as done in this study, is necessary to understand the role that individual variation can play at the beginning of differentiation processes.
PubMed ID
33598144 View in PubMed
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Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Jan 19;370(1660)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-19-2015
Author
Mikkel Winther Pedersen
Søren Overballe-Petersen
Luca Ermini
Clio Der Sarkissian
James Haile
Micaela Hellstrom
Johan Spens
Philip Francis Thomsen
Kristine Bohmann
Enrico Cappellini
Ida Bærholm Schnell
Nathan A Wales
Christian Carøe
Paula F Campos
Astrid M Z Schmidt
M Thomas P Gilbert
Anders J Hansen
Ludovic Orlando
Eske Willerslev
Author Affiliation
Centre for GeoGenetics, The Natural History Museum of Denmark, Oester Voldgade 5-7, Copenhagen C 1350, Denmark.
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Jan 19;370(1660)
Date
Jan-19-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field.
PubMed ID
25487334 View in PubMed
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Ancient human parvovirus B19 in Eurasia reveals its long-term association with humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292662
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jul 02; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-02-2018
Author
Barbara Mühlemann
Ashot Margaryan
Peter de Barros Damgaard
Morten E Allentoft
Lasse Vinner
Anders J Hansen
Andrzej Weber
Vladimir I Bazaliiskii
Martyna Molak
Jette Arneborg
Wieslaw Bogdanowicz
Ceri Falys
Mikhail Sablin
Václav Smrcka
Sabine Sten
Kadicha Tashbaeva
Niels Lynnerup
Martin Sikora
Derek J Smith
Ron A M Fouchier
Christian Drosten
Karl-Göran Sjögren
Kristian Kristiansen
Eske Willerslev
Terry C Jones
Author Affiliation
Center for Pathogen Evolution, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jul 02; :
Date
Jul-02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a ubiquitous human pathogen associated with a number of conditions, such as fifth disease in children and arthritis and arthralgias in adults. B19V is thought to evolve exceptionally rapidly among DNA viruses, with substitution rates previously estimated to be closer to those typical of RNA viruses. On the basis of genetic sequences up to ~70 years of age, the most recent common ancestor of all B19V has been dated to the early 1800s, and it has been suggested that genotype 1, the most common B19V genotype, only started circulating in the 1960s. Here we present 10 genomes (63.9-99.7% genome coverage) of B19V from dental and skeletal remains of individuals who lived in Eurasia and Greenland from ~0.5 to ~6.9 thousand years ago (kya). In a phylogenetic analysis, five of the ancient B19V sequences fall within or basal to the modern genotype 1, and five fall basal to genotype 2, showing a long-term association of B19V with humans. The most recent common ancestor of all B19V is placed ~12.6 kya, and we find a substitution rate that is an order of magnitude lower than inferred previously. Further, we are able to date the recombination event between genotypes 1 and 3 that formed genotype 2 to ~5.0-6.8 kya. This study emphasizes the importance of ancient viral sequences for our understanding of virus evolution and phylogenetics.
PubMed ID
29967156 View in PubMed
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Ancient human parvovirus B19 in Eurasia reveals its long-term association with humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294883
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 07 17; 115(29):7557-7562
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
07-17-2018
Author
Barbara Mühlemann
Ashot Margaryan
Peter de Barros Damgaard
Morten E Allentoft
Lasse Vinner
Anders J Hansen
Andrzej Weber
Vladimir I Bazaliiskii
Martyna Molak
Jette Arneborg
Wieslaw Bogdanowicz
Ceri Falys
Mikhail Sablin
Václav Smrcka
Sabine Sten
Kadicha Tashbaeva
Niels Lynnerup
Martin Sikora
Derek J Smith
Ron A M Fouchier
Christian Drosten
Karl-Göran Sjögren
Kristian Kristiansen
Eske Willerslev
Terry C Jones
Author Affiliation
Center for Pathogen Evolution, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 07 17; 115(29):7557-7562
Date
07-17-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Erythema Infectiosum - genetics - history
Evolution, Molecular
Genome, Viral
Genotype
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Parvovirus B19, Human - genetics
Phylogeny
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Abstract
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a ubiquitous human pathogen associated with a number of conditions, such as fifth disease in children and arthritis and arthralgias in adults. B19V is thought to evolve exceptionally rapidly among DNA viruses, with substitution rates previously estimated to be closer to those typical of RNA viruses. On the basis of genetic sequences up to ~70 years of age, the most recent common ancestor of all B19V has been dated to the early 1800s, and it has been suggested that genotype 1, the most common B19V genotype, only started circulating in the 1960s. Here we present 10 genomes (63.9-99.7% genome coverage) of B19V from dental and skeletal remains of individuals who lived in Eurasia and Greenland from ~0.5 to ~6.9 thousand years ago (kya). In a phylogenetic analysis, five of the ancient B19V sequences fall within or basal to the modern genotype 1, and five fall basal to genotype 2, showing a long-term association of B19V with humans. The most recent common ancestor of all B19V is placed ~12.6 kya, and we find a substitution rate that is an order of magnitude lower than inferred previously. Further, we are able to date the recombination event between genotypes 1 and 3 that formed genotype 2 to ~5.0-6.8 kya. This study emphasizes the importance of ancient viral sequences for our understanding of virus evolution and phylogenetics.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29967156 View in PubMed
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Arctic-adapted dogs emerged at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305477
Source
Science. 2020 06 26; 368(6498):1495-1499
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-26-2020
Author
Mikkel-Holger S Sinding
Shyam Gopalakrishnan
Jazmín Ramos-Madrigal
Marc de Manuel
Vladimir V Pitulko
Lukas Kuderna
Tatiana R Feuerborn
Laurent A F Frantz
Filipe G Vieira
Jonas Niemann
Jose A Samaniego Castruita
Christian Carøe
Emilie U Andersen-Ranberg
Peter D Jordan
Elena Y Pavlova
Pavel A Nikolskiy
Aleksei K Kasparov
Varvara V Ivanova
Eske Willerslev
Pontus Skoglund
Merete Fredholm
Sanne Eline Wennerberg
Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Rune Dietz
Christian Sonne
Morten Meldgaard
Love Dalén
Greger Larson
Bent Petersen
Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén
Lutz Bachmann
Øystein Wiig
Tomas Marques-Bonet
Anders J Hansen
M Thomas P Gilbert
Author Affiliation
The GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. mhssinding@gmail.com tomas.marques@upf.edu ajhansen@sund.ku.dk tgilbert@sund.ku.dk.
Source
Science. 2020 06 26; 368(6498):1495-1499
Date
06-26-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological - genetics
Animals
Apolipoproteins - genetics
Arctic Regions
Dogs - genetics
Fatty Acids - metabolism
Genome
Greenland
Haplotypes
Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins - genetics
Selective Breeding
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Siberia
Triglycerides - metabolism
Wolves - genetics
Abstract
Although sled dogs are one of the most specialized groups of dogs, their origin and evolution has received much less attention than many other dog groups. We applied a genomic approach to investigate their spatiotemporal emergence by sequencing the genomes of 10 modern Greenland sled dogs, an ~9500-year-old Siberian dog associated with archaeological evidence for sled technology, and an ~33,000-year-old Siberian wolf. We found noteworthy genetic similarity between the ancient dog and modern sled dogs. We detected gene flow from Pleistocene Siberian wolves, but not modern American wolves, to present-day sled dogs. The results indicate that the major ancestry of modern sled dogs traces back to Siberia, where sled dog-specific haplotypes of genes that potentially relate to Arctic adaptation were established by 9500 years ago.
PubMed ID
32587022 View in PubMed
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101 records – page 1 of 11.