To explore the natural course of beta cell function in recent onset diabetes, a subgroup (n=157) of all incident cases (n=879) 15-34 years old, 1992-1993 in Sweden, and with positivity for at least one autoantibody of islet cell antibodies (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) or tyrosine phosphatase antibodies (IA-2A) were followed prospectively for the first four years with annual analysis of C-peptide. The aim was to relate the course of beta cell function, measured as C-peptide, in early diabetes with the presence of different islet autoantibodies at diagnosis. We found that patients positive for ICA alone (n=11) had significantly higher C-peptide levels both at diagnosis and during the first three years compared with the other patients (n=146; p=0.022, p
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the total direct medical costs to society for patients with type 2 diabetes in Sweden and to investigate how different factors, for example diabetic late complications, affect costs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data regarding health care utilization, clinical characteristics and quality of life, were collected at a single time-point. Data on resource use cover the 6-month period prior to this time point. SETTING: Patient recruitment and data collection were performed in nine primary care centres in three main regions in Sweden. SUBJECTS: Only patients with an age at diabetes diagnosis >/= 30 years (type 2 diabetes) were included (n = 777). RESULTS: The total annual direct medical costs for the Swedish diabetes type 2 population were estimated at about 7 billion SEK (Swedish Kronor) in 1998 prices, which is about 6% of the total health care expenditures and more than four times higher than the former Swedish estimate obtained when using diabetes as main diagnosis for calculating costs. The annual per patient cost was about 25 000 SEK. The largest share of this cost was hospital inpatient care. Costs increased with diabetes duration and were higher for patients treated with insulin compared to those treated with oral hypoglycaemic drugs or with life style modification only. Patients with both macro- and microvascular complications had more than three times higher costs compared with patients without such complications. CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes is a serious and expensive disease and the key to reducing costs seems to be intensive management and control in order to prevent and delay the associated late complications.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to evaluate how an aetiology-based classification, as recommended in the ADA and WHO guidelines for classification of diabetes mellitus, matches clinical judgement in the Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS), a study covering incident cases of diabetic patients aged 15 to 34 years. METHODS: During a 1-year period (1998), blood samples were taken at diagnosis and 4 months (median) thereafter. Patients were classified according to clinical judgement by the reporting physicians and assessments of islet antibodies (ICA, GADA, and IA-2A) and plasma C-peptide. RESULTS: In 1998, 422 patients were registered in DISS. Among the 313 patients participating in the follow-up, most with clinical Type 1 diabetes (185/218, 85%, 95% CI 79-89%) were islet antibody positive (ab+) at diagnosis. In addition, 14 out of 58 (24%, 14-37%) with clinical Type 2 diabetes and 21 out of 37 (57%, 40-73%) with unclassifiable diabetes were antibody positive at diagnosis. Further to this, 4 out of 33 (12%, 3-28%) were antibody negative with clinical Type 1 diabetes and 4 out of 44 (9%, 3-22%) with Type 2 had converted to antibody positive at follow-up. Among those who were constantly antibody negative, 10 out of 29 (34%, 18-54%) with clinical Type 1 and 1 out of 16 (6%, 0-30%) with unclassifiable diabetes had fasting plasma C-peptide concentrations below the normal range (
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The objective of the study was to analyse the mortality, survival and cause of death patterns in incident cases of diabetes in the 15-34-year age group that were reported to the nationwide prospective Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the study period 1983-1999, 6,771 incident cases were reported. Identification of deaths was made by linking the records to the nationwide Cause of Death Register. RESULTS: With an average follow-up of 8.5 years, resulting in 59,231 person-years, 159 deaths were identified. Diabetes was reported as the underlying cause of death in 51 patients (32%), and as a contributing cause of death in another 42 patients (26%). The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was significantly elevated (RR=2.4; 95% CI: 2.0-2.8). The SMR was higher for patients classified by the reporting physician as having type 2 diabetes at diagnosis than for those classified as type 1 diabetic (2.9 and 1.8, respectively). Survival analysis showed significant differences in survival curves between males and females (p=0.0003) as well as between cases with different types of diabetes (p=0.005). This pattern was also reflected in the Cox regression model showing significantly increased hazard for males vs females (p=0.0002), and for type 2 vs type 1 (p=0.015) when controlling for age. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This study shows a two-fold excess mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes and a three-fold excess mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thus, despite advances in treatment, diabetes still carries an increased mortality in young adults, even in a country with a good economic and educational patient status and easy access to health care.
OBJECTIVE--To elucidate whether family characteristics and stressful life events were associated with onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--This investigation was based on a nationwide study (Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden) of newly diagnosed patients aged 15-34 years. Patients clinically classified as type 1 diabetic with antibodies to islet cells and/or to GAD65 were compared with age- and sex-matched control subjects via questionnaire. The questionnaire covered diabetes heredity, social environment, educational level, and life events experienced during the 12 months before diagnosis. RESULTS--The rate of response was 82% for the diabetic patients and 65% for the control subjects. Questionnaires from 349 diabetic patients and 979 control subjects were considered. Diabetes in relatives was more frequent in the patients (odds ratio [OR]2.6) who were born in Sweden and whose mothers were of Swedish origin. No major stress factors were detected in the diabetic patients; however, in comparison with the control subjects, the diabetic patients had experienced fewer conflicts with their parents and had less often broken contacts with friends. CONCLUSIONS--Young adults with recent-onset type 1 diabetes were more exposed to heredity for diabetes, but no major prediabetic stress factors were detected. Our study does not directly support the concept that psychosocial stressful life events are involved in the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in young adults.
The aim of this study was to examine the fear of hypoglycaemia and its association with demographic and disease-specific variables in a large and unselective population of adult patients with Type 1 diabetes.
Questionnaires were sent by post to all patients with Type 1 diabetes who were identified in the local diabetes registries of two hospitals in Stockholm, Sweden (n=1387). Fear of hypoglycaemia was measured using the Swedish Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey, the Worry subscale and the Aloneness subscale. Demographic variables and disease-specific factors were collected from patients' self reports and medical records. Univariate analysis and multiple stepwise linear regression analysis were used in the statistical analyses of the data.
Seven hundred and sixty-four (55%) patients participated in the study (mean age 43.3 years and mean HbA(1c) 7.0%, normal
Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) is the most important factor for prediction of insulin therapy within 3 years in young adult diabetic patients not classified as Type 1 diabetes on clinical grounds.
BACKGROUND: Differentiation between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in adults is difficult at diagnosis. In this study we tested the hypothesis that autoantibodies at diagnosis are predictive for insulin treatment within 3 years in patients initially not classified as Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a nationwide population-based study, blood samples were obtained from 764 patients, all diagnosed with diabetes during a 2-year period. At diagnosis, 583 (76%) were classified as Type 1, 110 (14%) as Type 2 and 71 (9.3%) could not be classified. RESULTS: Among patients not classified as Type 1 diabetes, 52 (47%) of Type 2 and 42 (59%) of unclassified patients were positive for islet cell antibodies (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) or tyrosine phosphatase antibodies (IA-2A). These patients (n=94) had lower body mass index (BMI) (p