An outbreak of measles that occurred in Anchorage, Alaska, in 1998 resulted in 33 diagnosed cases: 26 were laboratory confirmed and 7 were clinically confirmed. Twenty-nine (88%) of 33 cases occurred in individuals who had not been immunized with at least two measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations; 25 (76%) of 33 occurred in school-age children, 0 to 19 years of age. This study identifies the difference in the incidence of measles between the civilian school-age population, who was not completely immunized (two MMR vaccinations given at least 30 days apart), and the military dependent population who had been completely immunized. All cases occurred among civilians, and most (25 of 33 confirmed cases) were associated with school attendance. The authors conclude that a two-dose regimen of MMR vaccine is required to adequately protect individuals against measles.
Indigenous communities are often portrayed from a deficit-based lens; however, Indigenous communities have self-determined perspectives of health and well-being that are strength based. The objective of this study will be to systematically map the literature on perspectives, concepts, and constructs of wellness and well-being in Indigenous communities in Canada.
A scoping review protocol was designed following the Arksey and O'Malley framework. We will search the following electronic databases (from inception onwards): MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Anthropology Plus, Bibliography of Native North Americans, Canadian Business and Current Affairs, and Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database. Grey literature will be identified through searching dissertation databases, Google Scholar, and conference abstracts. We will include all types of literature in English, published and unpublished, including any study design, reviews and meta-analyses, dissertations, reports, and books. The literature considered should describe or reflect Indigenous perspectives that identify concepts or constructs related to well-being or wellness; literature can be from any setting in Canada. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text reports, and abstract data. Data analysis will involve quantitative descriptions (e.g. frequencies) and qualitative content analysis methods.
This review will provide a synthesis of the literature on Indigenous perspectives, concepts, and constructs of wellness and well-being in Canada. We anticipate the study will contribute to improve our understanding of how Indigenous communities conceptualize and embody wellness. Our findings will provide a basis for engaging Indigenous stakeholders in future health research and informing future interpretations of how wellness is conceptualized, whether written or unwritten.
The objective of this study was to determine the risk of concussion in youth male hockey players with preseason reports of neck pain, headaches, and/or dizziness.
Secondary data analysis of pooled data from 2 prospective cohort studies.
Ice hockey rinks in Alberta and Quebec, Canada.
A total of 3832 male ice hockey players aged 11 to 14 years (280 teams) participated.
Participants recorded baseline preseason symptoms of dizziness, neck pain, and headaches on the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson regression, adjusted for cluster by team, hours of exposure, and other covariates.
Concussions that occurred during the season were recorded using a validated prospective injury surveillance system.
Preseason reports of neck pain and headache were risk factors for concussion (IRR = 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-2.41 and IRR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01-2.13). Dizziness was a risk factor for concussion in the Pee Wee nonbody checking cohort (IRR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.33-7.26). A combination of any 2 symptoms was a risk factor in the Pee Wee nonbody checking cohort (IRR = 3.65; 95% CI, 1.20-11.05) and the Bantam cohort (IRR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.15-4.97).
Male youth athletes reporting headache and neck pain at baseline were at an increased risk of concussion during the season. The risk associated with dizziness and any 2 of dizziness, neck pain, or headaches depended on age group and body checking.
Baseline testing may be of benefit to identify individuals with symptoms of dizziness, neck pain, and headaches who may be at a higher risk of concussion during the season.
To determine if there is an association between the risk of all injury or concussion and win-loss records or penalty minutes in competitive youth ice hockey players (ages 11-14).
This is a secondary data analysis of a 2-year cohort study in Alberta and Quebec on the 2007/2008 (Pee Wee) and 2008/2009 (Bantam) seasons. Main outcome measures Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated based on Poisson regression for game-related injury and concussion and adjusted for cluster by team.
A total of 140 teams from Alberta (n=2081) and 137 teams (n=2018) from Quebec were included in the analysis. There were 451 game-related injuries (121 concussions) from Alberta and 280 (62 concussions) from Quebec. For game-related injuries, the IRR between players from teams with more than 50% wins and players with less or equal to 50% wins was 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.95) for all injuries, 0.75 (95% CI 0.52-1.08) for concussions, 0.64 (95% CI 0.47-0.88) for injuries resulting in time loss of more than 7 days, and 0.74 (95% CI 0.39-1.40) for concussions resulting in time loss of more than 10 days; adjusting for clustering by team and other important risk factors (i.e., province, age, level of play, previous injury, weight and position). There was no association found between the total penalty minutes per game and game-related injury or concussion.
There was a significant association found between team performance (i.e., win/loss/tie record) and injury risk with a 22% lower injury rate and 36% lower injury rate resulting in less than 7 days time loss in Pee Wee and Bantam ice hockey teams winning more than 50% of all season games. Total penalty minutes per game were not associated with injury or concussion rates.
Comment In: Clin J Sport Med. 2013 Jul;23(4):325-623799406
Society uses animals in ever-increasing numbers and ways, providing ethical challenges. Decisions about animal use are guided by the social consensus ethic towards animals. Because there is no clear social consensus ethic, these decisions are difficult. Society's ethic is changing and a "new ethic" towards animals is emerging. This study addressed the need to better understand society's ethics towards animals. Qualitative research methodology (focus groups) was used to study 7 different animal-interest groups. Qualitative data analysis was computer-aided. The group ethical position towards animals of its own group interest was determined for each group. The animal welfare, companion animal, and veterinary groups took Rollin's Position, a position based on both the Utilitarian and the Rights Principles; the farmer and trapper groups the Utilitarian/Land Ethic position, a dual position based on actions producing the greatest amount of pleasure and the least amount of pain for the greatest number, and preserving the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community; the hunter group the Utilitarian/Judeo-Christian position, a dual position based on actions producing the greatest amount of pleasure and the least amount of pain for the greatest number, and having dominion over animals; and the naturalist group took Rollin's Position/Land Ethic. All these groups perceived medium to extreme ethical responsibility towards animals of their own group's interest that are used by others. The study showed that the predicted "new ethic" towards animals is in New Brunswick society and it is Rollin's Position.
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[Study of the cytosolic concentrations of the tissue poly-peptide specific (TPS) antigen in infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast. Positive relationship with hormone dependency and negative with cellular proliferation]
INTRODUCTION: The tissue-specific polypeptide antigen (TPS) is an epitope of the tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) which is defined by the M3 monoclonal antibody and is related to cytokeratin 18. Several groups have demonstrated its value as a useful parameter in the follow-up of some tumors. This work has aimed to study the TPS cytosolic levels in infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast (IDC) and their possible correlations with other clinical-biological parameters. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The TPS was determined by means of an immunoradiometric assay (Beki Diagnostics. Sweden). Other parameters included in the study were the estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), pS2, cathepsin D, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastases, histological grade, ploidy and S-phase. RESULTS: The TPS cytosolic levels ranged from 1.8 to 606.3 KU/mg prt. (median 110.2) and had a significant correlation with the ER (r: 0.721), PR (r: 0.287), cathepsin D (r: 0.550) and t-PA (r:0.436).The TPS positive (> 110.2 KU/mg prt.) carcinomas had higher levels of ER (p: 0.001), PR (p: 0.021), pS2 (p: 0.058), cathepsin D (p: 0.000) and t-PA (p: 0.053) than the TPS negative tumors. When the IDC were classified according to S-phase values, we observed that the positive cases (S-phase > 8.1%, which represents the median value of all carcinomas) had lower levels of TPS (p: 0.046) than the negative tumors. Likewise, the GoG1 cellular fraction correlated positively and significantly with the TPS cytosolic levels (p: 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, we suggest that there is a positive correlation between the TPS cytosolic levels and hormone-dependence parameters, as well as an inverse correlation between these and the cellular proliferation parameters. Based on the above, we consider that it is worthwhile to carry out further studies on cytosolic TPS in order to investigate its possible value as a prognostic parameter in breast carcinomas.