A sample of 98 Canadian homosexual and bisexual men, 46 of South Asian and 52 of European origin, who had sex with other than an exclusive primary partner were asked about their high-risk sexual behaviours during the previous six months. They were also queried about internalized homophobia, acculturation to the gay community, and for South Asians acculturation to the majority culture. Participants who reported more internalized homophobia were more likely to engage in both high-risk anal and oral sex. South Asian men exhibited significantly greater levels of homophobia. In addition, South Asian men who were less acculturated to the majority culture were more likely to engage in both types of high-risk sex. These data suggest a need to address internalized homophobia in HIV prevention programmes with homosexual and bisexual men generally, and further suggest the need to target less acculturated South Asian men in particular.