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Keeping pace with forestry: Multi-scale conservation in a changing production forest matrix.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308986
Source
Ambio. 2020 May; 49(5):1050-1064
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
May-2020
Author
Adam Felton
Therese Löfroth
Per Angelstam
Lena Gustafsson
Joakim Hjältén
Annika M Felton
Per Simonsson
Anders Dahlberg
Matts Lindbladh
Johan Svensson
Urban Nilsson
Isak Lodin
P O Hedwall
Anna Sténs
Tomas Lämås
Jörg Brunet
Christer Kalén
Bengt Kriström
Pelle Gemmel
Thomas Ranius
Author Affiliation
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, Rörsjöv 1, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden. adam.felton@slu.se.
Source
Ambio. 2020 May; 49(5):1050-1064
Date
May-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Biodiversity
Conservation of Natural Resources
Forestry
Forests
Sweden
Trees
Abstract
The multi-scale approach to conserving forest biodiversity has been used in Sweden since the 1980s, a period defined by increased reserve area and conservation actions within production forests. However, two thousand forest-associated species remain on Sweden's red-list, and Sweden's 2020 goals for sustainable forests are not being met. We argue that ongoing changes in the production forest matrix require more consideration, and that multi-scale conservation must be adapted to, and integrated with, production forest development. To make this case, we summarize trends in habitat provision by Sweden's protected and production forests, and the variety of ways silviculture can affect biodiversity. We discuss how different forestry trajectories affect the type and extent of conservation approaches needed to secure biodiversity, and suggest leverage points for aiding the adoption of diversified silviculture. Sweden's long-term experience with multi-scale conservation and intensive forestry provides insights for other countries trying to conserve species within production landscapes.
Notes
ErratumIn: Ambio. 2019 Nov 16;: PMID 31734903
PubMed ID
31529355 View in PubMed
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Peatland plant communities under global change: negative feedback loops counteract shifts in species composition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295773
Source
Ecology. 2017 Jan; 98(1):150-161
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Per-Ola Hedwall
Jörg Brunet
Håkan Rydin
Author Affiliation
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sundsvägen 3, SE-230 53, Alnarp, Sweden.
Source
Ecology. 2017 Jan; 98(1):150-161
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Climate change
Ecosystem
Forests
Plants
Sphagnopsida
Sweden
Trees
Abstract
Mires (bogs and fens) are nutrient-limited peatland ecosystems, the vegetation of which is especially sensitive to nitrogen deposition and climate change. The role of mires in the global carbon cycle, and the delivery of different ecosystem services can be considerably altered by changes in the vegetation, which has a strong impact on peat-formation and hydrology. Mire ecosystems are commonly open with limited canopy cover but both nitrogen deposition and increased temperatures may increase the woody vegetation component. It has been predicted that such an increase in tree cover and the associated effects on light and water regimes would cause a positive feed-back loop with respect to the ground vegetation. None of these effects, however, have so far been confirmed in large-scale spatiotemporal studies. Here we analyzed data pertaining to mire vegetation from the Swedish National Forest Inventory collected from permanent sample plots over a period of 20 yr along a latitudinal gradient covering 14°. We hypothesized that the changes would be larger in the southern parts as a result of higher nitrogen deposition and warmer climate. Our results showed an increase in woody vegetation with increases in most ericaceous dwarf-shrubs and in the basal area of trees. These changes were, in contrast to our expectations, evenly distributed over most of the latitudinal gradient. While nitrogen deposition is elevated in the south, the increase in temperatures during recent decades has been larger in the north. Hence, we suggest that different processes in the north and south have produced similar vegetation changes along the latitudinal gradient. There was, however, a sharp increase in compositional change at high deposition, indicating a threshold effect in the response. Instead of a positive feed-back loop caused by the tree layer, an increase in canopy cover reduced the changes in composition of the ground vegetation, whereas a decrease in canopy cover lead to larger changes. Increased natural disturbances of the tree layer due to, for example, pathogens or climate is a predicted outcome of climate change. Hence, these results may have important implications for predictions of long-term effects of increased temperature on peatland vegetation.
PubMed ID
28052390 View in PubMed
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Phosphorus and nitrogen co-limitation of forest ground vegetation under elevated anthropogenic nitrogen deposition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295049
Source
Oecologia. 2017 Oct; 185(2):317-326
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Per-Ola Hedwall
Johan Bergh
Jörg Brunet
Author Affiliation
Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sundsvägen 3, 230 53, Alnarp, Sweden. per-ola.hedwall@slu.se.
Source
Oecologia. 2017 Oct; 185(2):317-326
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - metabolism
Forests
Human Activities
Nitrogen - analysis - metabolism
Phosphorus - analysis - metabolism
Sweden
Trees - growth & development
Abstract
Plant growth in northern forest ecosystems is considered to be primarily nitrogen limited. Nitrogen deposition is predicted to change this towards co-limitation/limitation by other nutrients (e.g., phosphorus), although evidence of such stoichiometric effects is scarce. We utilized two forest fertilization experiments in southern Sweden to analyze single and combined effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity, composition, and diversity of the ground vegetation. Our results indicate that the productivity of forest ground vegetation in southern Sweden is co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, the combined effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity was larger than when applied solely. No effects on species richness of any of these two nutrients were observed when applied separately, while applied in combination, they increased species richness and changed species composition, mainly by promoting more mesotrophic species. All these effects, however, occurred only for the vascular plants and not for bryophytes. The tree layer in a forest has a profound impact on the productivity and diversity of the ground vegetation by competing for both light and nutrients. This was confirmed in our study where a combination of nitrogen and high tree basal area reduced cover of the ground vegetation compared to all the other treatments where basal area was lower after stand thinning. During the past decades, nitrogen deposition may have further increased this competition from the trees for phosphorus and gradually reduced ground vegetation diversity. Phosphorus limitation induced by nitrogen deposition may, thus, contribute to ongoing changes in forest ground vegetation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28884383 View in PubMed
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Trait variations of ground flora species disentangle the effects of global change and altered land-use in Swedish forests during 20 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284802
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2016 Dec;22(12):4038-4047
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2016
Author
Per-Ola Hedwall
Jörg Brunet
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2016 Dec;22(12):4038-4047
Date
Dec-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Climate
Forests
Nitrogen - analysis
Soil
Sweden
Trees
Abstract
Northern forest ecosystems are exposed to a range of anthropogenic processes including global warming, atmospheric deposition, and changing land-use. The vegetation of northern forests is composed of species with several functional traits related to these processes, whose effects may be difficult to disentangle. Here, we combined analyses of spatio-temporal dynamics and functional traits of ground flora species, including morphological characteristics, responses to macro- and microclimate, soil conditions, and disturbance. Based on data from the Swedish National Forest Inventory, we compared changes in occurrence of a large number of ground flora species during a 20-year period (1994-2013) in boreal and temperate Sweden respectively. Our results show that a majority of the common ground flora species have changed their overall frequency. Comparisons of functional traits between increasing and declining species, and of trends in mean trait values of sample plots, indicate that current floristic changes are caused by combined effects of climate warming, nitrogen deposition and changing land-use. Changes and their relations with plant traits were generally larger in temperate southern Sweden. Nutrient-demanding species with mesotrophic morphology were favored by ongoing eutrophication due to nitrogen deposition in the temperate zone, while dwarf shrubs with low demands on nitrogen decreased in frequency. An increase of species with less northern and less eastern distribution limits was also restricted to temperate Sweden, and indicates effects of a moister and milder macroclimate. A trend toward dense plantation forests is mirrored by a decrease of light-demanding species in both vegetation zones, and a decrease of grassland species in the temperate zone. Although denser tree canopies may buffer effects of a warmer climate and of nitrogen deposition to some extent, traits related to these processes were weakly correlated in the group of species with changing frequency. Hence, our results indicate specific effects of these often confounded anthropogenic processes.
PubMed ID
27111238 View in PubMed
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