Mitral annulus motion (MAM) is a predictor of mortality in selected patient groups, but its prognostic value in less selected populations is not known. In a community-based random sample of 75-year-old men and women (n = 408), left ventricular function was measured as: (1) maximum amplitude of MAM; and (2) wall-motion index. During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, 83 persons died (26 from cardiac causes). Left ventricular function as measured by MAM predicted the risk of all-cause and cardiac mortality independently of other potential risk factors in this community-based sample. Regarding cardiac mortality, the predictive ability of MAM was also independent of left ventricular systolic function measured as wall-motion index. MAM may prove to be a valuable complement to other echocardiographic methods in the assessment of prognosis in less selected populations.
OBJECTIVE: To compare lifestyle and health aspects among obese, overweight, and normal-weight 15-year-old boys living in the county of Västmanland, Sweden. DESIGN: A cross-sectional school-based survey. Setting. All schools in the county of Västmanland, Sweden. SUBJECTS: A questionnaire was completed anonymously by 989 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The relations between body mass index and social factors, eating habits, physical activity, body image, relations, school situation, use of alcohol, drugs and tobacco, somatic and psychological symptoms in boys. RESULTS: Obese boys had a significant negative outcome in 19 out of 31 items studied compared with normal-weight boys, while the overweight boys had a significant negative outcome in 9 out of 31. The obese boys reported more irregular eating habits than normal-weight boys, were less satisfied with their weight and looks, and had fewer friends. A larger proportion of the obese boys reported that they did not like school, were more absent from school, and had been exposed to more violence. They bullied their schoolmates more often. The obese boys had tried sniffing solvents and used illicit drugs more frequently than their peers. They reported more somatic and psychological symptoms as well as suicidal thoughts and attempts. CONCLUSIONS: Obese 15-year-old boys differed from overweight and normal-weight boys in lifestyle and in the frequency of somatic and psychological symptoms. Early and vigorous intervention is necessary, as they may belong to a risk group that could develop not only medically but also socially negative consequences.
To compare the effects on exercise capacity and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of two exercise programmes; one programme including endurance training and one including only resistance training and callisthenics. A second purpose was to find out whether the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affected the training response and whether the interventions had a long-term effect.
Sixty-three patients were stratified according to severity of COPD and randomised to two training groups. Group A had a mixed programme including endurance training. Group B had resistance training and callisthenics. All trained twice weekly for 8 weeks. A symptom-limited ergometer test, 12-min walking test, dynamic spirometry, blood gas analysis at rest and HRQoL were measured before and after the training period. Follow-up tests were conducted at 6 and 12 months after training.
Forty-two patients fulfilled the trial. In group A (n=20) peak exercise capacity increased by 7W (P